VHDL Article - FPGAs and Bitcoins: You're Too Late
BTCminer: ZTEX FPGA Boards and the Open-Source SDK ...
Open-Source-FPGA-Bitcoin-Miner/miner.v at master ...
Has anyone ever attempted to build a FPGA hpc cluster using bitcoin mining gear to configure the FPGAs and 40-100G network to load the actual data sets for processing? Custom hardware yes, but could be useful for things like cryptography and the like. Possibly develop some generic RISCV soft processors with four or three pipelines, for a many core CPU on each chip. Could be interesting in practice and could be done multiple different ways, just getting that kind of internal band width stumps me. (200-400+ gb/s) Got several ideas, none are that economical DIY or enterprises for that matter.... Could scale really easily over multiple racks, just the network infrastructure needed is mind boggling. ~Kain Kelly
Satoshi Nakamoto said that biggest flaw in Bitcoin network are miners. That's because consensus algorithm, TX hash rate is dependent on miners calculation. Basically, we are consuming a lot of electricity to gather multiple tx in a block, in order to 3 Chinese mining pools can smash that block and take the Bitcoin reward. And if is not enough, the mining pools can inject fake tx in the network to clog it, so TX fees for us (peasants) will go higher.
Why we are using hardware and electricity to create one block?
Why Consensus algorithm is dependent on a new block creation?
Where is the new Internet we all wanted back in 2009-2010 where millions of computer would be the network ?
https://medium.com/@Skycoinproject/cyberbalkanization-and-the-future-of-the-internets-f03f2b590c39 A) Skycoin is the bigger brother of Bitcoin. Early developers of Bitcoin knew that Miners will control the Bitcoin network in the future, so a part of them started to research a new Consensus Algorithm called Obeliskhttps://www.skycoin.net/blog/posts/obelisk-the-skycoin-consensus-algorithm/ B) Skycoin resolved 51% attack, sybil attack, has 0 TX fee, 1-2 sec for a tx , and is private. But the most important thing. Skycoin is the only crypto out there who fixed the problem of volatility of a cryptocurrency. What's that ? Imagine if price of Skycoin goes higher and higher, peasants will ''HoDL'' it, so the term ''currency '' is lost. Why someone would spend an asset that goes higher and higher? B1) One Skycoin kept in the wallet is creating non-stop a second currency called CoinHour. 1SKY is creating 24 CoinHours per day and so on. Coinhour is backed by bandwidth => Skywire(Software Defined Network) is the New Internet that gives Skycoin a real value, a commodity level value. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CbSdVIwr8E B2) In this ecosystem Skycoin behaves like an equity and CoinHour is the real currency. For example Skycoin Price can reach 1 million and the price of Coinhour is independent, its equilibrium is reached by supply and demand of the market https://explorer.skycoin.net/app/blocks/1 C) Ethereum has a buggy prog language and all shitcoins are on Ethereum Blockchain (Database) with only 30 tx/s. Why would someone would gather all the data on ONE Database?! C1) Skycoin created CX ( first deterministic cryptographic prog language) https://www.skycoin.net/blog/posts/cx-overview/ C2) Skycoin created Fiber https://www.skycoin.net/fibe ( basically you can create your own blockchain with 300-3000 tx/s, private or public , with hardware customization ( law firms, government entities and so on as early adopters) D) Skywire is the New Internet built at the Hardware and Software level -Skywire is hardware agnostic -Skywire has its DYI Antennas - Skywire has FPGA boards -Skyiwire has 10k nodes online ( more than TOR) Bibliography:
TLDR: one neighbor is rendering a movie. He wants 1 TB/ s. He will pay CoinHour to his neighbors to borrow bandwidth capacity of their sky clusters and antennas. Skycoin Address : 25139AGYjwGwgKMZEA268GbJyXrZGWF533i
jl777 Discusses Metachain Scaling and Burn Protocol. 6/24/18
Jl777 discusses Metachain Scaling and Burn Protocol. This was pulled from an informal conversation on Discord on 6/24/18. Full disclosure, I’ve edited content to combine shorter messages into paragraph format to help readability including necessary punctuation. I’ve also removed background comments that weren’t relevant to the discussion topic, but the full conversation is on Komodo Discord and Telegram channels.
TLDR in the Comments.
jl777: http://cryptocartography.io/txscl_vis/ Right now a small test is running, only 64 chains and getting 7000+ tx/sec. Now 9000+, it might make it to 10,000 tx/sec using 64 chains. These are full bitcoin protocol crypto tx. 9892.
JohnWestbrook: So to out-perform visa we need another 47k/second...What’s the relationship between chain count and tx?
jl777: More chains, more capacity, if you need double the capacity, double the number of chains. If you need 100x, then 100x the chains. KMD is now leading in dPoW security, JUMBLR privacy, scaling and atomic swaps.
JohnWestbrook: Nice, so this will theoretically tell us the exact number of chains to hit 60K/second. Is a chain defined as a full node?
jl777: A chain is defined as a blockchain, you know, like bitcoin. Bitcoin seems to work pretty well, so we just replicate chains over and over.
JohnWestbrook: Right, but what do you mean when you say 64...ah gotcha. That’s what I was asking.
jl777: 64 different chains, means 64 chains that are all different. It seems about 6400 chains will hit 1 mil tx/sec.
jl777: Nobody ever said it was easy to do.
jl777: But it can be done by replicating working tech, ie. the basic bitcoin protocol blockchain. No magic needed and unlike other scaling proposals, we secure each of these chains with dPoW.
JohnWestbrook: That would be 64000 instances running, correct? so 64K VMs could handle this? Right. So they are bitcoin-level secure out of the box. I want to write an article on this, thus my questions, gotta wrap my little mind around and see how it can easily be communicated to people who glaze over when they hear the word “chain”.
jl777: The problem with having many chains is that there are many chains, so how does one chain interact with the other, let alone all 6400 of them. That is where our MoMoM tech comes in.
JohnWestbrook: Ah right, I was reading up on that yesterday.
jl777: Audo has good materials on that, but the essence is that we add to the notarization data, additional levels of merkle data that allows any chain to validate any other chain's tx, as long as KMD is around to create the proofs. This ability allows to create a burn protocol, so that coins can be burned on one chain and recreated on another.
JohnWestbrook: Could mpich be used to run multiple instances of a daemon and essentially individual chains?
jl777: What is mpich?
JohnWestbrook: Quick and dirty super computer, allows you to tie together CPU threads from many servers on a network to run a process multiple times.
jl777: No user has to run all the chains, they would just run the ones they care about, so however the usage is localized, users would use the few chains they need. We use komodo assetchains, so you launch a new komodod for each chain assuming a geographic allocation of chains, you would have citywide chains, countywide, statewide, nationwide. So most people just have their city's chain locally, if they are travelling to a different city, they convert to the new city's chain.
JohnWestbrook: Right was just thinking that through, so where is the bottleneck then...
jl777: A bit of prep work but at least it is possible and it can all be automated. The burn protocol takes 2 to 3 notarizations, which automatically builds in security to the process, but it does take half hour or so.
JohnWestbrook: So in a sense the user experience is massive tx capacity and the notarization can continue on without impacting the performance users experience?
jl777: Notarization only impacts a user when they are transferring coins from one chain to another then they need to wait 2 or 3 notarizations.
JohnWestbrook: okay, I see.
jl777: All the rest of the time, the notarizations just happen, securing the chain.
JohnWestbrook: Very nice.
jl777: No need to break things into unsecured shards, when the blockchains are already independent and dPow secured.
jl777: This is the first viable candidate to use for a nationwide crypto, all the other proposed solutions I see are either insecure or unproven or don’t exist.
JohnWestbrook: This is so much superior to ethereum proposed sharding.
jl777: It is much simpler and simpler is much better, yes. It also costs much less per tx, a lot less, it ends up being as secure as BTC. Sort of a magic trick.
JohnWestbrook: Yeah in every way. more secure, faster, scalable, etc.
jl777: But this is just one use-case of our contracts tech, we continue to create useful solutions while most other projects have some sort of pie in the sky whitepaper, many describing what we already have.
JohnWestbrook: Very true. Meanwhile you are getting about 5X the current avg tx speed of Visa, and roughly 50X that of PayPal.
jl777: Tx or payments?
JohnWestbrook: TX per second.
jl777: One tx can have 1 payment or 100+.
JohnWestbrook: Visa avg about 1600 i think. oh right! Lol.
jl777: At 100 payments tx, you lose 90% of tx/sec, but gain 100x on payments so a 10x increase in payments / sec. 10,000 tx/sec of 1 pay -: 1000 tx/sec of 100 pay = 100,000 payments per second. that is with "only" 64 chains.
JohnWestbrook: Ah. need to confirm the numbers on others...but for example i think ether is 20 or so, maybe that’s old info.
jl777: What is the point for single blockchain throughputs when we can spawn an arbitrary number and we don’t need some magical maglev vacuum sealed hypersonic roadway. Just an old fashioned asphalt road suffices.
JohnWestbrook: haha yes.
jl777: Whatever capacity the hypersonic maglev road can achieve, N asphalt roads will get much better overall traffic throughput and be much less expensive. There is only one complex/clever part about our scaling and that is the MoMoM, 99% is just brute force replication of working blockchain tech.
Grewalsatinder: I think train track example again suites here instead of roads.
jl777: Granted, being able to spawn a chain from the command line is pretty cool and what makes it possible to automate.
Yorklab: If there is no limit (or if it's crazy high), then Komodo should advertise as such. State the actual tested then state what's theoretically possible, because the tested number proves the theory.
jl777: The only limit is the number of blockchains the internet can support. More chains, more capacity and we are seeing a linear scaling of capacity per chain, now the bottlenecks have been fixed.
Yorklab: Then Komodo's scaling capability is unlimited. Never heard anybody else state this before, much less prove it.
jl777: It is limited by the internet's capacity.
blackjok3r: @JohnWestbrook If you have any questions for me about the tests design let me know. It’s incredibly simple in its function. As James said we just automated a system that allows for spawning unlimited chains and then filling all of their mempools with TX at the same time.
jl777: While it is being notarized.
jl777: And that also allows the burn protocol to be done at the same time.
Yorklab: Speaking only of Komodo's capability.
jl777: KMD is needed to create the proofs, dPoW must go to KMD chain, it’s only a few hundred KMD per year per chain, so it won’t be that much of an effect, until we get 10,000+ chains notarizing. But considering that 10,000 chains can be spawned automatically it is just a matter of having the funding to launch a single cluster of 10,000 chains.
jl777: On a separate topic I added: fill or kill, immediate or cancel and good till canceled modes for BarterDEX trades, from the Alice side. Bob automatically makes custom sized utxo for Alice so Alice just needs to have the utxo for the purchase and the dexfee. It also autosplits if there is only one utxo. Until these improvements it was running in a hybrid (and silly) config of immediate or cancel for Alice but Bob was treating it as a fill or kill, so I think order matching will be 10x better now.
Matt Watt: How on earth does one code all that stuff…? I have difficulties to just run a file on the linux terminal. Just learned to point the terminal to a directory by using cd and then execute the file by ./
Jl777: it’s not just me coding.
Matt Watt: Gonna take course C++. Want to know more… build own mining prog and setting up FPGA cards.
Jl777: Best way to learn is to do.
AndronicusBass: Get active and peer to peer human networking will help you advance your goal.
Jl777: We recently got the burn protocol working so all the pieces are in place for a nationwide crypto. [End Conversation]
A FPGA opensource miner has just been released running at 80Mhps but at a cost of $585. The efficiency is stated below quoted from a post in the thread.
At 80 MHps, I will need at least 3 of these to achieve a single 5830 hashrate. That is $595.-x 3 = $1785.- at full price, vs. $190.- for the 5830. Giving the 5830 is consuming $11.- a month in electricity, and assuming this board will consume zero electricity, it will take more than 145 months, or 12 years to recover the investment, always comparing to a 5830.
Apologies but no more development information will be posted. I've been offered a 25% share from someone that owns 2 FPGA clusters. If you haven't seen that type of hardware before think a 156 FPGAs per machine.
From those posts what we can understand is that the factors that affect FPGA now are high procurement cost, low running cost and ease of scalability . What this means is that with the increasing total hash rate of the network (30Ghash/day last difficultly adjustment) the question becomes when would the difficulty render GPU inefficient in contrast to running cost? Remember to take into account FPGAs are usually run in clusters and even though it would not be beneficial to buy one outright, those who have access to FPGA are the first movers and eventual dominant forces of the mining market. Of course, in the end, ASIC is where it's at. Anyone? =D Edit: read more stuff, added info.
QuarkChain Testnet 1.0 was built based on standardized blockchain system requirements, which included network, wallet, browser, and virtual machine functionalities. Other than the fact that the token was a test currency, the environment was completely compatible with the main network. By enhancing the communication efficiency and security of the network, Testnet 2.0 further improves the openness of the network. In addition, Testnet 2.0 will allow community members (other than citizens or residents of the United States) to contribute directly to the network, i.e. running a full node and mining, and receive testnet tokens as rewards. QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 will support multiple mining algorithms, including two typical algorithms: Ethash and Double SHA256, as well as QuarkChain’s unique algorithm called Qkchash – a customized ASIC-resistant, CPU mining algorithm, exclusively developed by QuarkChain. Mining is available both on the root chain and on shards due to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure. Miners can flexibly choose to mine on the root chain with higher computing power requirements or on shards based on their own computing power levels. Our Goal By allowing community members to participate in mining on Testnet 2.0, our goal is to enhance QuarkChain’s community consensus, encourage community members to participate in testing and building the QuarkChain network, and gain first-hand experience of QuarkChain’s high flexibility and usability. During this time, we hope that the community can develop a better understanding about our mining algorithms, sharding technologies, and governance structures, etc. Furthermore, this will be a more thorough challenge to QuarkChain’s design before the launch of mainnet! Thus, we sincerely invite you to join the Testnet 2.0 mining event and build QuarkChain’s infrastructure together! Today, we’re pleased to announce that we are officially providing the CPU mining demo to the public (other than citizens and residents of the United States)! Everyone can participate in our mining event, and earn tQKC, which can be exchanged to real rewards by non-U.S. persons after the launch of our mainnet. Also, we expect to upgrade our testnet over time, and expect to allow GPU mining for Ethash, and ASIC mining for Double SHA256 in the future. In addition, in the near future, a mining pool that is compatible with all mining algorithms of QuarkChain is also expected to be supported. We hope all the community members can join in with us, and work together to complete this milestone! 2 Introduction to Mining Algorithms 2.1 What is mining？ Mining is the process of generating the new blocks, in which the records of current transactions are added to the record of past transactions. Miners use software that contribute their mining power to participate in the maintenance of a blockchain. In return, they obtain a certain amount of QKC per block, which is called coinbase reward. Like many other blockchain technologies, QuarkChain adopts the most widely used Proof of Work (PoW) consensus algorithm to secure the network. A cryptographically-secure PoW is a costly and time-consuming process which is difficult to solve due to computation-intensity or memory intensity but easy for others to verify. For a block to be valid it must satisfy certain requirements and hash to a value less than the current target threshold. Reverting a block requires recreating all successor blocks and redoing the work they contain, which is costly. By running a cluster, everyone can become a miner and participate in the mining process. The mining rewards are proportional to the number of blocks mined by each individual. 2.2 Introduction to QuarkChain Algorithms and Mining setup According to QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure and Boson consensus, different shards can apply different consensus and mining algorithms. As part of the Boson consensus, each shard can adjust the difficulty dynamically to increase or decrease the hash power of each shard chain. In order to fully test QuarkChain testnet 2.0, we adopt three different types of mining algorithms” Ethash, Double SHA256, and Qkchash, which is ASIC resistant and exclusively developed by QuarkChain founder Qi Zhou. These first two hash algorithms correspond to the mining algorithms dominantly conducted on the graphics processing unit (GPU) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASIC), respectively. I. Ethash Ethash is the PoW mining algorithm for Ethereum. It is the latest version of earlier Dagger-Hashimoto. Ethash is memory intensive, which makes it require large amounts of memory space in the process of mining. The efficiency of mining is basically independent of the CPU, but directly related to memory size and bandwidth. Therefore, by design, building Ethash ASIC is relatively difficult. Currently, the Ethash mining is dominantly conducted on the GPU machines. Read more about Ethash: https://github.com/ethereum/wiki/wiki/Ethash II. Double SHA256 Double SHA256 is the PoW mining algorithms for Bitcoin. It is computational intensive hash algorithm, which uses two SHA256 iterations for the block header. If the hash result is less than the specific target, the mining is successful. ASIC machine has been developed by Bitmain to find more hashes with less electrical power usage. Read more about Double SHA256: https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Block_hashing_algorithm III. Qkchash Originally, Bitcoin mining was conducted on the CPU of individual computers, with more cores and greater speed resulting in more profitability. After that, the mining process became dominated by GPU machines, then field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and finally ASIC, in a race to achieve more hash rates with less electrical power usage. Due to this arms race, it has become increasingly harder for prospective new miners to join. This raises centralization concerns because the manufacturers of the high-performance ASIC are concentrated in a small few. To solve this, after extensive research and development, QuarkChain founder Dr. Qi Zhou has developed mining algorithm — Qkchash, that is expected to be ASIC-resistant. The idea is motivated by the famous date structure orders-statistic tree. Based on this data structure, Qkchash requires to perform multiple search, insert, and delete operations in the tree, which tries to break the ASIC pipeline and makes the code execution path to be data-dependent and unpredictable besides random memory-access patterns. Thus, the mining efficiency is closely related to the CPU, which ensures the security of Boston consensus and encourges the mining decentralization. Please refer to Dr. Qi’s paper for more details: https://medium.com/quarkchain-official/order-statistics-based-hash-algorithm-e40f108563c4 2.3 Testnet 2.0 mining configuration Numbers of Shards: 8 Cluster: According to the real-time online mining node The corresponding mining algorithm is Read more about Ethash with Guardian: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/wiki/Ethash-with-Guardian) We will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners are able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the mining difficulty and rewards of different shards. GPU / ASIC mining is allowed if the public manages to get it working with the current testnet. With the upgrade of our testnet, we will further provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC software. QuarkChain’s two-layered blockchain structure, new P2P mode, and Boson consensus algorithm are expected tobe fully tested and verified in the QuarkChain testnet 2.0. 3 Mining Guidance In order to encourage all community members to participate in QuarkChain Testnet 2.0 mining event, we have prepared three mining guidances for community members of different backgrounds. Today we are releasing the Docker Mining Tutorial first. This tutorial provides a command line configuration guide for developers and a docker image for multiple platforms, including a concise introduction of nodes and mining settings. Follow the instructions here: Quick Start with QuarkChain Mining. Next we will continue to release: A tutorial for community members who don’t have programming background. In this tutorial, we will teach how to create private QuarkChain nodes using AWS, and how to mine QKC step by step. This tutorial is expected to be released in the next few days. Programs and APIs integrated with GPU / ASIC mining. This is expected to allow existing miners to switch to QKC mining more seamlessly. Frequently Asked Questions: 1. Can I use my laptop or personal computer to mine? Yes, we will provide cluster software and the demo implementation of CPU mining to the public. Miners will be able to arbitrarily select one shard or multiple shards to mine according to the work difficulty and rewards of different shards. 2. What is the minimum requirements for my laptop or personal computer to mine? Please prepare a Linux or MacOs machine with public IP address or port forwarding set up. 3. Can I mine with my GPU or an ASIC machine? For now, we will only be providing the demo implementation of CPU mining as our first step. Interested miners/developers can rewrite the corresponding GPU / ASIC mining program, according to the JSON RPC API we provided. With the upgrade of our testnet, we expect to provide the corresponding GPU / ASIC interface at a later date. 4. What is the difference among the different mining algorithms? Which one should I choose? Double SHA256 is a computational intensive algorithm, but Ethash and Qkchash are memory intensive algorithms, which have certain requirements on the computer’s memory. Since currently we only support CPU mining, the mining efficiency entirely depends on the cores and speed of CPU. 5. For testnet mining, what else should I know? First, the mining process will occupy a computer’s memory. Thus, it is recommended to use an idle computer for mining. In Testnet 2.0 settings, the target block time of root chain is 60 seconds, and the target block time of shard chain is 10 seconds. The mining is a completely random process, which will take some time and consume a certain amount of electricity. 6. What are the risks of testnet mining? Currently our testnet is still under the development stage and may not be 100% stable. Thus, there would be some risks for QuarkChain main chain forks in testnet, software upgrades and system reboots. These may cause your tQKC or block record to be lost despite our best efforts to ensure the stability and security of the testnet. For more technical questions, welcome to join our developer community on Discard: https://discord.me/quarkchain. 4 Reward Mechanism Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein, including mining, are not being offered and will not be available to any citizens or residents of the United States and certain other jurisdictions. All rewards will only be payable following the mainnet launch of QuarkChain. In order to claim or receive any of the following rewards after mainnet launch, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information about yourself. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other sanctions. NO U.S. PERSONS MAY PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0 AND QUARKCHAIN WILL STRICTLY ENFORCE THIS VIA OUR KYC PROCEDURES. IF YOU ARE A CITIZEN OR RESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, DO NOT PARTICIPATE IN TESTNET 2.0. YOU WILL NOT RECEIVE ANY REWARDS FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION. 4.1 Mining Rewards
Prize Pool A total of 5 million QKC prize pool have been reserved to motivate all miners to participate in the testnet 2.0 mining event. According to the different mining algorithms, the prize pool is allocated as follows:
Total Prize Pool: 5,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Ethash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Double SHA256 Algorithm: 1,000,000 QKC Prize Pool for Qkchash Algorithm: 2,000,000 QKC The number of QKC each miner is eligible to receive upon mainnet launch will be calculated on a pro rata basis for each mining algorithm set forth above, based on the ratio of sharded block mined by each miner to the total number of sharded block mined by all miners employing such mining algorithm in Testnet 2.0.
Early-bird Rewards To encourage more people to participate early, we will provide early bird rewards. Miners who participate in the first month (December 2018, PST) will enjoy double points. This additional point reward will be ended on December 31, 2018, 11:59pm (PST).
4.2 Bonus for Bug Submission: If you find any bugs for QuarkChain testnet, please feel free to create an issue on our Github page: https://github.com/QuarkChain/pyquarkchain/issues, or send us an email to [email protected]. We may provide related rewards based on the importance and difficulty of the bugs. 4.3 Reward Rules: QuarkChain reserves the right to review the qualifications of the participants in this event. If any cheating behaviors were to be found, the participant will be immediately disqualified from any rewards. QuarkChain further reserves the right to update the rules of the event, to stop the event/network, or to restart the event/network in its sole discretion, including the right to interpret any rules, terms or conditions. For the latest information, please visit our official website or follow us on Telegram/Twitter. About QuarkChain QuarkChain is a flexible, scalable, and user-oriented blockchain infrastructure by applying blockchain sharding technology. It is one of the first public chains that successfully implemented state sharding technology for blockchain in the world. QuarkChain aims to deliver 100,000+ on-chain TPS. Currently, 14,000+ peak TPS has already been achieved by an early stage testnet. QuarkChain already has over 50 partners in its ecosystem. With flexibility, scalability, and usability, QuarkChain is enabling EVERYONE to enjoy blockchain technology at ANYTIME and ANYWHERE. Testnet 2.0 and all rewards described herein are not being and will not be offered in the United States or to any U.S. persons (as defined in Regulation S promulgated under the U.S. Securities Act of 1933, as amended) or any citizens or residents of countries subject to sanctions including the Balkans, Belarus, Burma, Cote D’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic Republic of Congo, Iran, Iraq, Liberia, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, Zimbabwe, Central African Republic, Crimea, Lebanon, Libya, Somalia, South Suda, Venezuela and Yemen. QuarkChain reserves the right to terminate, suspend or prohibit participation of any user in Testnet 2.0 at any time. In order to claim or receive any rewards, including mining rewards, you will be required to provide certain identifying documentation and information. Failure to provide such information or demonstrate compliance with the restrictions herein may result in termination of your participation, forfeiture of all rewards, prohibition from participating in future QuarkChain programs, and other actions. This announcement is provided for informational purposes only and does not guarantee anyone a right to participate in or receive any rewards in connection with Testnet 2.0. Note: The use of Testnet 2.0 is subject to our terms and conditions available at: https://quarkchain.io/testnet-2-0-terms-and-conditions/ more about qurakchain: Website: https://quarkchain.io/cn/ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/quarkchainofficial/ Twitter: https://twitter.com/Quark_Chain Telegram: https://t.me/quarkchainio
Hello reddit, I used to mine Bitcoin and made an ok amount of profit to entertain it. I want to get back in to mining (I was around when CPU/GPU mining was profitable) I know that FPGA mining is on its way out so the only way is big clusters of Asics.What I plan to do is mine an easier currency(lite etc) and convert to bitcoin. I'm a linux user for nearly a decade so that isnt a problem. What type of initial investment would I need to make to get in competitively, electricity bills aren't a factor for me so how many MH/s or GH/s would you recommend?
BTCMiner - Bitcoin Miner for ZTEX FPGA boards. BTCMiner is an Open Source Bitcoin Miner for ZTEX USB-FPGA Modules 1.15.These FPGA Boards contain an USB interface which is used for communication and programming (i.e. no JTAG programmer is required) and allows to build low cost FPGA clusters using standard components like USB hubs. Bitcoin mining software for ZTEX USB-FPGA Modules 1.15 . BTCMiner is an Open Source Bitcoin Miner for ZTEX USB-FPGA-Modules 1.15b and 1.15d and USB-FPGA-Modules 1.15x. The latter variant is optimized for cryptographic computations such as Bitcoin Mining and allows to build up FPGA clusters using standard components (USB cables and USB hubs). A completely open source implementation of a Bitcoin Miner for Altera FPGAs. This project hopes to promote the free and open development of FPGA based mining solutions and secure the future of the Bitcoin project as a whole. A binary release is currently available for the Terasic DE2-115 Development Board. - teknohog/Open-Source-FPGA-Bitcoin-Miner Bitcoin mining is measured in Mega-hashes per second (Mhash/s). In order to make $10 at today’s rate of ~$120/bitcoin, you would need to use your Spartan 6 development board for about eight months. Oh and that doesn't include the cost of electricity. Check a good bitcoin mining calculator if you want to check the results for today’s rates. Der Großteil des Bitcoin Mining ist spezialisiert und die Lagerhäuser sehen in etwa so aus: Quelle ieee.org. Damit haben Sie es zu tun! Es ist einfach zu teuer und es ist unwahrscheinlich, dass Sie einen Gewinn erzielen. Allerdings: Zum Hobby-Mining zeigen wir Ihnen ein paar Schritte, die Sie unternehmen können, um sofort mit dem Mining von Bitcoins zu beginnen. Schritt #1: Besorgen Sie ...
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