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Asicpower AP9-SHA256 Review


Asicpower AP9-SHA256 Review

Bitmain is regarded as one of the most influential companies in the ASIC mining industry. It is estimated that they have manufactured approximately 53% of all mining equipment.Without including their mining profits, that’s around $140 million dollars in sales. These figures are staggering, but Bitmain’s monopoly of the Bitcoin ASIC market may come to an end, following the release of PowerAsic’s asicpower AP9-SHA256.

About the asicpower AP9-SHA256

Designed with brand new technology and boasting 94 TH/s per miner, the AP(-SHA256 is the most powerful and efficient Bitcoin miner to date.PowerAsic claims they spent $12 million dollars on research, development, and prototypes.PowerAsic also noted that their miners take advantage of ASICBOOST, an exploit of Bitcoin’s algorithm which improves mining efficiency by 20%.An unusual approach separate Powerasic’s miner to the other manufactures is the implementation of copper heat-sink claimed to have a superior thermal conductivity 69% better than aluminium. Don’t take their words for it but confirm the facts are correct on widely well known and published science documents as this one.The first batch of miners were announced and made available for order in August of 2019, with start scheduled for shipment in September, 2019.
Powerasic claims that the machines are around 40 percent more productive than the most proficient ASIC on the market, Bitmain’s Antminer S17.According to PowerAsic, they started a mining project with the aim to bring much needed competition to the market…We want to ‘make SHA256 great again.Sitting at the hefty price of $2,795.00, the powerasic AP9-SHA256 is far from affordable for the average person. Fortunately, due to the newly born rivalry between Bitmain and Powerasic, the price will probably lower with time and competition.The power supply for this unit is included and integrated in the top-box also including the controler card as a one unit. You will also get standard power cable, network cable, manual and software in the packet. In comparison to the price of the Antminer S17 , the Powerasic AP9-Sha256 is a better value.

Power Supply

The integrated PSU 3300W has a inputVoltage 220V 50Hz 30A. There are 2 fan 40mm., 1 fan 60mm to keep it cool and the power cable 3 legs following CEE 7 standard.Professional mining hardware runs optimally at 220-240V, hence why mining farms step down their own electricity supply to 220-240V. Note that 220V current is only found outside of the US – American outlets are 110V by default. Unless you want to hire an electrician, this could cause some people trouble adapt to the eficient and recomended 220V power needed, still 110V will get the job done, but they are not ideal for optimum mining performance.

Power Consumption

Thanks to the powerasic AP9-HA256’s new 7nm generation of ASIC chips, the AP9-SHA256 has become the most electrically-efficient miner on the market.Consuming merely 30.J/TB, or 2860W from the wall, the 16T is 30% more electrically-efficient than the Antminer S17.

Profitability

Powerasic ’s new ASIC technology is impressive. When compared to its closest competitor, the Antminer S17, the powerasic AP9-HA256 is the clear winner. It hashes at 94 TH/s, as opposed to the S17’s 56 TH/s. Moreover, the the AP9-HA256 consumes 30J/GH, whereas the S17 consumes 39-45J/TB.The difference in power consumption is miniscule, but when it comes to large-scale mining, the the AP9-HA256’s edge will drastically increase the profitability of a mining operation. This ASIC is profitable not only for mining on a large scale, but for the individual miner as well.Take a look at the projected mining profitability of a single miner:Note that is appears profitable even with high electricity costs ($0.1 per KW/h). With $0.05 / KW/h it’s even more profitable:📷Each powerasic AP9-HA256 will generate about $6,009 per year (calculated with 1 BTC=$10,141.5). Mining profitability may vary. You can usethis free profitability calculator to determine your projected earnings.

Is powerasic AP9-HA256 a Scam?

There is been a lot of talk on Twitter that powerasic AP9-HA256 is a scam. It appears it is not, as many users are already claiming to have received their miners.Slush, the creator ot Slush Mining Pool and the TREZOR hardware wallet, claims on Twitter that he has seen units and knows people who have had their miners delivered:

Verdict: Is The Antminer S17 Outdated?

When the first batch of Bitmain’s Antminer S17 ASICs reached the eager hands of miners, they were all the rage. The S17 was renowned as the most efficient ASIC miner on the market. Many used the S17 as the industry’s golden standard.Up until the launch of the powerasic AP9-HA256, it was the golden standard.But, now?Things have changed.Not only is the powerasic AP9-HA256 more powerful than its predecessor from Bitmain, but also more efficient, and therefore, more profitable.Ever since the announcement of the new ASIC, there was widespread speculation of its legitimacy – and rightly so.The Bitcoin community has been plagued with small, phony companies manipulating images of preexisting antminers as a ploy to hype up their fake products. Nevertheless, powerasic AP9-HA256 is taking things seriously, and their first batch of miners have lived up to expectations.The fact of the matter is, Bitmain’s most powerful and efficient antminer has been dethroned by the new reigning king of ASICs: The powerasic AP9-HA256.

Conclusion

Bitmain has dominated the ASIC market since its inception in 2013.There are a few other companies producing ASICs. However, before the creation of PowerAsics AP9-SHA256., Bitmain was the only company with a proven track record that sold efficient miners directly to the public.Powerasic AP9-HA256 has the potential to bring Bitmain’s monopoly to an end. Powerasic AP9-HA256 has a bright future ahead of them. Now that Bitmain has noteworthy competition, it will be interesting to see how it affects the market. The powerasic AP9-HA256 is the best option (for now) for anyone getting started with mining. Powerasic’s innovation should force other ASIC producers to innovate and force other companies to release new miners with better efficiency. So whether you’re buying a miner now or soon, you’re likely to benefit from the development of this new miner. For more, Visit Us: https://asicpower.net/product.php
submitted by farwa786 to u/farwa786 [link] [comments]

howmanyconfs.com - How does the security of different Proof-of-Work blockchains compare to Bitcoin?

https://howmanyconfs.com
Original post in Bitcoin here: https://np.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/biokgy/howmanyconfscom_how_does_the_security_of/

https://github.com/lukechilds/howmanyconfs.com/raw/mastescreenshot.png

How are these values calculated?

It's easy to compare blockchain hashrates when the Proof-of-Work algorithm is the same. For example if Bitcoin has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s and Bitcoin Cash has a hashrate of SHA-256 @ 2 PH/s, it's easy to see that for a given period of time the Bitcoin blockchain will have 20x (40/2) the amount of work securing it than the Bitcoin Cash blockchain. Or to say that differently, you need to wait for 20x more Bitcoin Cash confirmations before an equivalent amount of work has been done compared to the Bitcoin blockchain. So 6 Bitcoin confirmations would be roughly equivalent to 120 Bitcoin Cash confirmations in the amount of work done.
However if the Proof-of-Work algorithms are different, how can we compare the hashrate? If we're comparing Bitcoin (SHA-256 @ 40 PH/s) against Litecoin (Scrypt @ 300 TH/s), the hashes aren't equal, one round of SHA-256 is not equivalent to one round of Scrypt.
What we really want to know is how much energy is being consumed to provide the current hash rate. Literal energy, as in joules or kilowatt hours. It would be great if we had a universal metric across blockchains like kWh/s to measure immutability.
However that's fairly hard to calculate, we need to know the average power consumption of the average device used to mine. For GPU/CPU mined Proof-of-Work algorithms this varies greatly. For ASIC mined Proof-of-Work algorithms it varies less, however it's likely that ASIC manufacturers are mining with next generation hardware long before the public is made aware of them, which we can't account for.
There's no automated way to get this data and no reliable data source to scrape it from. We'd need to manually research all mining hardware and collate the data ourself. And as soon as newer mining hardware comes out our results will be outdated.
Is there a simpler way to get an estimated amount of work per blockchain in a single metric we can use for comparisons?
Yeah, there is, we can use NiceHash prices to estimate the cost in $ to secure a blockchain for a given timeframe. This is directly comparable across blockchains and should be directly proportionate to kWh/s, because after all, the energy needs to be paid for in $.
How can we estimate this?
Now we have an estimated total Proof-of-Work metric measured in dollars per second ($/s).
The $/s metric may not be that accurate. Miners will mark up the cost when reselling on NiceHash and we're making the assumption that NiceHash supply is infinite. You can't actually rent 100% of Bitcoin's hashpower from NiceHash, there isn't enough supply.
However that's not really an issue for this metric, we aren't trying to calculate the theoretical cost to rent an additional 100% of the hashrate, we're trying to get a figure that allows us to compare the cost of the current total hashrate accross blockchains. Even if the exact $ value we end up with is not that accurate, it should still be proportionate to kWh/s. This means it's still an accurate metric to compare the difference in work done over a given amount of time between blockchains.
So how do we compare these values between blockchains?
Once we've done the above calculations and got a $/s cost for each blockchain, we just need to factor in the average block time and calculate the total $ cost for a given number of confirmations. Then see how much time is required on the other blockchain at it's $/s value to equal the total cost.
So to calculate how many Litecoin confirmations are equivalent to 6 Bitcoin confirmations we would do:
Therefore we can say that 240 Litecoin confirmations are roughly equal to 6 Bitcoin confirmations in total amount of work done.

Notes

$/s doesn't mean what it sounds like it means.

The $/s values should not be taken as literal costs.
For example:
This is does not mean you could do a 51% attack on Bitcoin and roll back 6 blocks for a cost of $360,000. An attack like that would be much more expensive.
The $/s value is a metric to compare the amount of work at the current hashrate between blockchains. It is not the same as the cost to add hashrate to the network.
When adding hashrate to a network the cost will not scale linearly with hashrate. It will jump suddenly at certain intervals.
For example, once you've used up the available hashrate on NiceHash you need to add the costs of purchasing ASICs, then once you've bought all the ASICs in the world, you'd need to add the costs of fabricating your own chips to keep increasing hashrate.

These metrics are measuring "work done", not security.

More "work done" doesn't necessarily mean "more security".
For example take the following two blockchains:
Bitcoin Cash has a higher $/s value than Zcash so we can deduce it has more "work done" over a given timeframe than Zcash. More kWh/s are required to secure it's blockchain. However does that really mean it's safer?
Zcash is the dominant blockchain for it's Proof-of-Work algorithm (Equihash). Whereas Bitcoin Cash isn't, it uses the same algorithm as Bitcoin. In fact just 5% of Bitcoin's hashrate is equivalent to all of Bitcoin Cash's hashrate.
This means the cost of a 51% attack against Bitcoin Cash could actually be much lower than a 51% attack against Zcash, even though you need to aquire more kWh/s of work, the cost to aquire those kWh/s will likely be lower.
To attack Bitcoin Cash you don't need to acquire any hardware, you just need to convince 5% of the Bitcoin hashrate to lend their SHA-256 hashpower to you.
To attack Zcash, you would likely need to fabricate your own Equihash ASICs, as almost all the Equihash mining hardware in the world is already securing Zcash.

Accurately calculating security is much more complicated.

These metrics give a good estimated value to compare the hashrate accross different Proof-of-Work blockchains.
However to calculate if a payment can be considered "finalised" involves many more variables.
You should factor in:
If the cryptocurrency doesn't dominate the Proof-of-Work it can be attacked more cheaply.
If the market cap or trading volume is really low, an attacker may crash the price of the currency before they can successfully double spend it and make a profit. Although that's more relevant in the context of exchanges rather than individuals accepting payments.
If the value of the transaction is low enough, it may cost more to double spend than an attacker would profit from the double spend.
Ultimately, once the cost of a double spend becomes higher than an attacker can expect to profit from the double spend, that is when a payment can probably be considered "finalised".
submitted by dyslexiccoder to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

How to get $100 million in VC funding to build an industry that makes $300 million profit without spending a dime

Yesterday I received an unexpected gift: a link to a copy of the slides of the presentation that 21inc gave to investors, apparently between October and December 2014, when they were still calling themselves "21E6".
(The sender asked to remain anonymous, and I am not sure about the copyright status of the file; so I would rather not repost it here yet. But it seems that several other people, including some of the 21inc competitors, have got a copy too; so anyone who is really interested can probably get it too.)
The slides don't have much new factual information, and basically confirm what we already guessed about the 21inc business plans. But they show that we severely underestimated their chutzpah and hype. Here are some random highlights (as far as I can decipher from the slides):
They had three relevant mining rig designs in the plans, that would require funding:
Codename Qty TH/s kW Cost Deploy Turnoff Profit($) --------------- ---- ---- --- ---- ------------ ----------- ----------- CyrusOne(v2), 7904 2.0 1.3 --- (already on) Apr 2015 ~23,000,000 IO(v1v3) 3250 5.2 1.3 2000 Jan 2015 Aug 2016 ~24,000,000 Brownfield(v3) 1900 5.5 1.3 2450 Mar 2015 > Nov 2017 ~20,000,000 
The "TH/s", "Cost", and "kW" columns are per "system", i.e. a mining unit containing many chips. The last column is the expected profit to be made from each set of mining hardware over its expected lifetime. (The slides have some other details that do not seem to be important.)
The first line is the hardware that they were mining with at the time of the presentation; that must be why the "Cost" (as far as investors are concerned) is given as zero.
The second line seems to be an upgrade of their previous mining hardware from v1 chips (which gave 2.7 PH/s total at the time) to v3 chips (which would give 17 PH/s) .
In reality, we have seen that their share of hashpower dwindled through all of 2015, and (AFAIK) they haven't mined a single block in the last six months. Were they still mining with CyrusOne on extra-life, or were they using the upgraded IO which was turned off prematurely? What happened to Brownfield?
However, their mining operations were secondary; the meat of their plan was the embedded chip, called BitSplit at the time.
The BitSPlit chip (as we suspected) was hard-wired to send 75% of the block reward to the 21inc wallet, whose address was burned in the silicon, and 25% to the user's wallet.
By my calculations, assuming 50 GH/s and no increase in the difficulty, the BitSplit would mine one block in 570 years, on average, and collect less than 2 BTC of reward in that time. So, of course, the chip was hard-wired to mine into a pool run by 21inc, that would spread the user's 25% of those 2 BTC (expected) into a daily regular trickle of a couple thousand satoshis. Their own mining operations would provide the BTC needed for the pool payouts of all the millions of chips that they expected to be running out there.
They projected to release 3 versions:
Model Qty GH/s W Cost Deploy Profit($) --------------- ---------- ---- -- ---- ------------ ------------ USB hub-charger 250,000 38 15 $35 Mar 2015 ~8,000,000 Embedded chip 1,000,000 63 15 $8 Aug 2015 ~103,000,000 BitSplit Inside 10,000,000 20 5 $0 Oct 2015 ~292,000,000 
The "Qty" is the expected number of units sold. The last column, IIUC, is the profit that 21inc expected to make from the 75% cut of the BTC produced by all the chips, over their expected lifetime.
In the above "USB hub-charger" model was a USB charging unit, roughly 3 x 2 x 1 inches, with 2 USB outputs and a mining chip inside, produced by 21inc themselves "to seed the market".
The second line, which I called "Embedded chip", seems to refer to discrete BitSplit chips provided by 21inc and included in consumer devices (like routers etc.) by OEM manufacturers.
The "BitSplit Inside" model would be the BitSplit integrated into the chipsets of other manufacturers, and manufactured by them. Its cost is listed as "$0" (for 21inc) because they expected those manufacturers to shoulder the cost of manufacturing and integrating the mining chip.
Apparently the market-seeding "USB hub-charger" was later replaced by the "Bitcoin Computer" (aka the PiTato). In one slide it is called "multifunctional BitSplit device", and depicted as a sleek shiny black box, the size of a cigarette pack, with a power cable and 2-3 USB or similar outputs. If that is supposed to be the PiTato, presumably they had not yet realized that a 15 w computer would need a cooling fan with a miniature wind tunnel on top.
In the last two entries, the manufacturers (not the device owners!) would be rewarded with the 25% slice of the BTC mined by those embedded chips. As an example, the slides say that a manufacturer who produced one quarter of the embedded BitSplits would get the 25% cut on the BTC yield of those chips, that was estimated to be between 2 and 4 million dollars per year of revenue in 2015--2018. Those numbers are based on the following predicted mean BTC prices: $350 for 2015, $1000 for 2016, $2200 for 2017, and $5500 for 2018.
So, their main business plan was fantastic: the OEM and chipset makers would pay the costs of producing and integrating the chips, the consumers would pay the cost of operating them, and 21inc would get 75% of all BTC mined by them, expected to be worth 400 million dollars.
It makes sense to invest 100 million in that plan, right?
EDIT1: Sentence order, typos.
EDIT2: See also this comment below about other sources of this info and this comment about a fatal flaw of the PiTato mining chip.
EDIT3: See also this comment with the data from slide 2, "At a glance"
submitted by jstolfi to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

bitcoin mining profitable in the US? Where are my calculations off?

Someone tell me where my calculations are wrong. Amazon has this miner advertised:
Antminer S9 ~14.0TH/s @ .098W/GH 16nm ASIC Bitcoin Miner
So that would consume 14000*0.98=1372 watts.
Given my electricity costs (0.12 $/kwhr), I would make $8.19 for every $1 of electricity. In a month, I would make $884.
That can't be right. Where did I screw up?
Here is a python script to calculate that:
dollars_per_kwhr= 173.17 / 1390 dollars_per_btc= 6000 miner_kwatts=1.372 miner_terahashes_per_second= 14.0 network_terahashes_per_second= 9e6 block_time=600 block_reward=25 rev_dollars_per_sec= dollars_per_btc * block_reward * miner_terahashes_per_second / (network_terahashes_per_second * block_time) cost_dollars_per_sec= dollars_per_kwhr*miner_kwatts/3600 print "rev={}".format(rev_dollars_per_sec) print "cost={}".format(cost_dollars_per_sec) print "ratio={}".format(rev_dollars_per_sec/cost_dollars_per_sec) print "profit per month={}".format(3600*24*30*(rev_dollars_per_sec-cost_dollars_per_sec)) 
edit: thanks to Personthingman2. 25 vs 12.5 block reward. when I change that, my script outputs: rev=0.000194444444444 cost=4.74798641087e-05 ratio=4.09530330582 profit per month=380.93219223
This is a $4000 unit, so it pays for itself in 10 months. OK. So whether I will ever make money on this depends heavily on the growth of the network hashing rate over time, and the increase in BTC price.
edit2: I am guessing that the answer to my question is that I would be lucky for the unit to keep working long enough to pay for itself. It would likely break down before reaching that point.
submitted by SilencingNarrative to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

At what price will Bitcoin fail to function? My estimate: ~$100.

I'll begin with my conclusions:
If the Bitcoin network consisted solely of 'Titanium ASIC' miners, the most powerful and energy efficient mining machine I know of, then the price point at which electricity costs begins to exceed rewards is $71/BTC (based on yesterday's network figures; more on that later). More realistically though, most miners aren't running highly efficient Titanium ASICs, hence I estimate ~$100/BTC as the turning point.
I say 'fail to function' in my title, because who will continue to mine at a pure loss? It would be irrational - the rational action would be turn off the machine until the value of the rewards increases. Note: This is not the same as sunk costs in buying hardware - because in that case even if you never get back how much you paid, you're still making something.
Perhaps, you might counter, Bitcoin enthusiasts will continue to mine at a loss. Well consider this: To sustain just 1% of the current network hash rate, you would require 559 Titanium ASICs costing over one million dollars in yearly electricity cost (at $0.10/kWh) - and that's a best case scenario.
Let's assume that's the case - you have Bitcoin Enthusiasts contributing the equivalent of 559 Titanium ASICs hashing power for free out of their pocket. That's a 99% drop in hash rate. The time to a difficulty retarget is 2016 blocks, or at 10minutes/block that's 2 weeks. But if the hash rate were to drop by 99% within that two week period, then the block time would balloon out to 16.66 hours - making the block retarget ETA up to 3.8 years!
If transactions took 16.66 hours just to get a single confirmation (if they had first priority), then how would use of Bitcoin remain practically feasible? Would people still have confidence in the system and the developers for allowing this to happen? How difficult or costly would it be to launch a 51% attack?
Now, on to the calculations, and a few less optimistic alternate scenarios:
Network hash rate at time of calculation: 335,365,290.09 GH/s
335,365,290.09 GH/s / 6000GH/s = 55894.215 'Titanium ASIC' miners
55894.215 x $5.28 daily electricity cost (At $0.10/kWh) = $295121.4552/day in electricity costs
= $1776.87709485/block (avg. time of 8.67 minutes)
$1776.87709485 / 25BTC block reward = $71.04/BTC = break even point.
The above does not account for pool fees or transaction fee revenue or more importantly variance in kWh rates ($0.10/kWh is nonetheless pretty low worldwide), and hardware cost is irrelevant to this calculation.
Without doing all the math again, here's some other popular mining machines for comparison:
$113.07 (SP35 Yukon)
$193.84 (CoinTerra TerraMiner IV)
$385.89 (Antminer S1)
I've also just seen the 'Antminer S4' mentioned in /Bitcoin, so just for comparison a Titanium ASIC is almost twice as energy efficient as an Antiminer S4 (2200W vs. 4200W for 6TH/s) - it's less efficient than the SP35 Yukon.
If I've made any miscalculations here or have left anything important out, feel free to correct me.
submitted by Josh_Garza to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining & The Beauty Of Capitalism

Authored by Valentin Schmid via The Epoch Times,
While the price of bitcoin drops, miners get more creative... and some flourish.
The bitcoin price is crashing; naysayers and doomsayers are having a field day. The demise of the dominant cryptocurrency is finally happening — or is it?
Bitcoin has been buried hundreds of times, most notably during the brutal 90 percent decline from 2013 to 2015. And yet it has always made a comeback.
Where the skeptics are correct: The second bitcoin bubble burst in December of last year and the price is down roughly 80 percent from its high of $20,000. Nobody knows whether and when it will see these lofty heights again.
As a result, millions of speculators have been burned, and big institutions haven’t showed up to bridge the gap.
This also happened on a smaller scale in 2013 after a similar 100x run-up, and it was necessary.

Time to Catch Up

What most speculators and even some serious proponents of the independent and decentralized monetary system don’t understand: Bitcoin needs these pauses to make improvements in its infrastructure.
Exchanges, which could not handle the trading volumes at the height of the frenzy and did not return customer service inquiries, can take a breather and upgrade their systems and hire capable people.
The technology itself needs to make progress and this needs time. Projects like the lightning network, a system which delivers instant bitcoin payments at very little cost and at virtually unlimited scale is now only available to expert programmers.
A higher valuation is only justified if these improvements reach the mass market.
And since we live in a world where everything financial is tightly regulated, for better or worse, this area also needs to catch up, since regulators are chronically behind the curve of technological progress.
And of course, there is bitcoin mining. The vital infrastructure behind securing the bitcoin network and processing its transactions has been concentrated in too few hands and in too few places, most notably China, which still hosts about 70 percent of the mining capacity.

The Case For Mining

Critics have always complained that bitcoin mining consumes “too much” electricity, right now about as much as the Czech Republic. In energy terms this is around 65 terawatt hours or 230,000,000 gigajoules, costing $3.3 billion dollars according to estimates by Digiconomist.
For the non-physicists among us, this is around as much as consumed by six million energy-guzzling U.S. households per year.
All those estimates are imprecise because the aggregate cannot know how much energy each of the different bitcoin miners consumes and how much that electricity costs. But they are a reasonable rough estimate.
So it’s worth exploring why mining is necessary to begin with and whether the electricity consumption is justified.
Anything and everything humans do consumes resources. The question then is always: Is it worth it? And: Who decides?
This question then leads to the next question: Is it worth having and using money? Most people would argue yes, because using money instead of barter in fact makes economic transactions faster and cheaper and thus saves resources, natural and human.

_Merchants exchange goods with the inhabitants of Tidore, Indonesia, circa 1550. Barter was supplanted by using money because it is more efficient. (Archive/Getty Images)_If we are generously inclined, we will grant bitcoin the status of a type of money or at least currency as it meets the general requirements of being recognizable, divisible, portable, durable, is accepted in exchange for other goods and services, and in this case it is even limited in supply.
So having any type of money has a price, whether it’s gold, dollar bills, or numbers on the screen of your online banking system. In the case of bitcoin, it’s the electricity and the capital for the computing equipment, as well as the human resources to run these operations.
If we think having money in general is a good idea and some people value the decentralized and independent nature of bitcoin then it would be worth paying for verifying transactions on the bitcoin network as well as keeping the network secure and sound: Up until the point where the resources consumed would outweigh the efficiency benefits. Just like most people don’t think it’s a bad idea to use credit cards and banks, which consume electricity too.
However, bitcoin is a newcomer and this is why it’s being scrutinized even more so than the old established players.

Different Money, Different Costs

How many people know how much electricity, human lives, and other resources gold mining consumes or has consumed in the course of history? What about the banking system? Branches, servers, air-conditioning, staff? What about printing dollar notes and driving them around in armored trucks?
What about the social effects of monetary mismanagement of bank and government money like inflation as well as credit deflations? Gold gets a pass here.
Most people haven’t asked that question, which is why it’s worth pointing out the only comprehensive study done on the topic in 2014. In “An Order of Magnitude” the engineer Hass McCook analyzes the different money systems and reaches mind-boggling conclusions.
The study is a bit dated and of course the aggregations are also very rough estimates, but the ball park numbers are reasonable and the methodology sound.
In fact, according to the study, bitcoin is the most economic of all the different forms of money.
Gold mining in 2014 used 475 million GJ, compared to bitcoin’s 230 million in 2018. The banking system in 2014 used 2.3 billion gigajoules.
Over 100 people per year die trying to mine gold. But mining costs more than electricity. It consumes around 300,000 liters of water per kilogram of gold mined as well as 150 kilogram (330 pounds) of cyanide and 1500 tons of waste and rubble.
The international banking system has been used in all kinds of fraudulent activity throughout history: terrorist financing, money laundering, and every other criminal activity under the sun at a cost of trillions of dollars and at an order of magnitude higher than the same transactions done with cryptocurrency and bitcoin.
And of course, while gold has a relatively stable value over time, our bank and government issued money lost about 90 percent of its purchasing power over the last century, because it can be created out of thin air. This leads to inflation and a waste of physical and human resources because it distorts the process of capital allocation.

_The dollar has lost more than 90 percent of its value since the creation of the Federal Reserve in 1913. (Source: St. Louis Fed)_This is on top of the hundreds of thousands of bank branches, millions of ATMs and employees which all consume electricity and other resources, 10 times as much electricity alone as the bitcoin network.
According to monetary philosopher Saifedean Ammous, author of “The Bitcoin Standard,” the social benefit of hard money, i.e. money that can’t be printed by government decree, cannot even be fathomed; conversely, the true costs of easy money—created by government fiat and bank credit—are difficult to calculate.
According to Ammous, bitcoin is the hardest money around, even harder than gold because its total supply is capped, whereas the gold supply keeps increasing at about 1-2 percent every year.
“Look at the era of the classical gold standard, from 1871, the end of the Franco–Prussian War, until the beginning of World War I. There’s a reason why this is known as the Golden Era, the Gilded Age, and La Belle Epoque. It was a time of unrivaled human flourishing all over the world. Economic growth was everywhere. Technology was being spread all over the world. Peace and prosperity were increasing everywhere around the world. Technological innovations were advancing.
“I think this is no coincidence. What the gold standard allowed people to do is to have a store of value that would maintain its value in the future. And that gave people a low time preference, that gave people the incentive to think of the long term, and that made people want to invest in things that would pay off over the long term … bitcoin is far closer to gold. It is a digital equivalent of gold,” he said in an interview with The Epoch Times.
Of course, contrary to the gold standard that Ammous talks about, bitcoin doesn’t have a track record of being sound money in practice. In theory it meets all the criteria, but in the real world it hasn’t been adopted widely and has been so volatile as to be unusable as a reliable store of value or as the underlying currency of a productive lending market.
The proponents argue that over time, these problems will be solved the same way gold spread itself throughout the monetary sphere replacing copper and seashells, but even Ammous concedes the process may take decades and the outcome is far from certain. Gold is the safe bet for sound money, bitcoin has potential.
There is another measure where bitcoin loses out, according to a recent study by researchers from the Oak Ridge Institute in Cincinnati, Ohio.
It is the amount of energy expended per dollar for different monetary instruments. One dollar worth of bitcoin costs 17 megajoules to mine versus five for gold and seven for platinum. But the study omits the use of cyanide, water, and other physical resources in mining physical metals.
In general, the comparisons in dollar terms go against bitcoin because it is worth relatively less, only $73 billion in total at the time of writing. An issue that could be easily fixed at a higher price, but a higher price is only justified if the infrastructure improves, adoption increases, volatility declines, and the network proves its resilience to attacks over time.
In the meantime, market participants still value the fact they can own a currency independent of the government, completely digital, easily fungible, and limited in supply, and relatively decentralized. And the market as a whole is willing to pay a premium for these factors reflected in the higher per dollar prices for mining bitcoin.

The Creativity of Bitcoin Mining

But where bitcoin mining lacks in scale, it makes up for it in creativity.
In theory—and in practice—bitcoin mining can be done anywhere where there is cheap electricity. So bitcoin mining operations can be conducted not where people are (banking) or where government is (fiat cash) or where gold is (gold mining)—it can be done everywhere where there is cheap electricity
Some miners are flocking to the heat of the Texan desert where gas is virtually available for free, thanks to another oil revolution.
Other miners go to places where there is cheap wind, water, or other renewable energy.
This is because they don’t have to build bank branches, printing presses, and government buildings, or need to put up excavators and conveyor belts to dig gold out of the ground.
All they need is internet access and a home for the computers that look like a shipping container, each one of which has around 200 specialized bitcoin mining computers in them.
“The good thing about bitcoin mining is that it doesn’t matter where on earth a transaction happens, we can verify it in our data center here. The miners are part of the decentralized philosophy of bitcoin, it’s completely independent of your location as well,” said Moritz Jäger, chief technology officer at bitcoin Mining company Northern Bitcoin AG.

Centralized Mining

But so far, this decentralization hasn’t worked out as well as it sounds in theory.
Because Chinese local governments had access to subsidized electricity, it was profitable for officials to cut deals with bitcoin mining companies and supply them with cheap electricity in exchange for jobs and cutbacks. Sometimes the prices were as low as 2 dollar cents to 4 dollar cents per kilowatt hour.
This is why the majority of bitcoin mining is still concentrated in China (around 70 percent) where it was the most profitable, but only because the Chinese central planners subsidized the price of electricity.
This set up led to the by and large unwanted result that the biggest miner of bitcoin, a company called Bitmain, is also the biggest manufacturer of specialized computing equipment for bitcoin mining. The company reported revenues of $2.8 billion for the first half of 2018.

Tourists walk on the dunes near a power plant in Xiangshawan Desert in Ordos of Inner Mongolia, in this file photo. bitcoin miners have enjoyed favorable electricity rates in places like Ordos for a long time. (Feng Li/Getty Images)Centralized mining is a problem because whenever there is one player or a conglomerate of players who control more than 50 percent of the network computing power, they could theoretically crash the network by spending the same bitcoin twice, the so called “double spending problem.“
They don’t have an incentive to do so because it would probably ruin the bitcoin price and their business, but it’s better not to have to rely on one group of people controlling an entire money system. After all, we have that exact same system with central banking and bitcoin was set up as a decentralized alternative.
So far, no player or conglomerate ever reached that 51 percent threshold, at least not since bitcoin’s very early days, but many market participants always thought Bitmain’s corner of the market is a bit too close for comfort.
This favorable environment for Chinese bitcoin mining has been changing with a crack down on local government electricity largess as well as a crackdown on cryptocurrency.
Bitcoin itself and mining bitcoin remain legal in China but cryptocurrency exchanges have been banned since late 2017.
But more needs to be done for bitcoin to become independent of the caprice of a centralized oppressive regime and local government bureaucrats.

Northern Bitcoin Case Study

Enter Northern Bitcoin AG. The company isn’t the only one which is exploring mining opportunities with renewable energies in locations other than China.
But it is special because of the extraordinary set up it has for its operations, the fact that it is listed on the stock exchange in Germany, and the opportunities for scaling it discovered.
The operations of Northern Bitcoin combine the beauties of bitcoin and capitalism in one.
Like Texas has a lot of oil and free gas and it makes sense to use the gas rather than burn it, Norway has a lot of water, especially water moving down the mountains due to rainfall and melting snow.
And it makes sense to use the power of the movement of the water, channel it through pipes into generators to create very cheap and almost unlimited electricity. Norway generates north of 95 percent of its total electricity from hydropower.

A waterfall next to a hydropowerplant near Sandane, Norway, Oct. 25, 2018. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)Capitalism does not distinguish between renewable and fossil. It uses what is the most expedient. In this case, it is clearly water in Norway, and gas in Texas.
As a side note on the beauties of real capital and the fact that capital and the environment need not be enemies, the water in one of the hydropowerplants close to the Northern Bitcoin facility is piped through a generator made in 1920 by J.M. Voith AG, a company from Heidenheim Germany.
The company was established in 1867 and is still around today. The generator was produced in 1920 and is still producing electricity today.

Excess Power

In the remote regions of Northern Norway, there aren’t that many people or industry who would use the electricity. And rather than transport it over hundreds of miles to the industrial centers of Europe, the industries of the future are moving to Norway to the source of the cheap electricity.
Of course, it is not just bitcoin mining, but other data and computing heavy operations like server farms for cloud computing that can be neatly packaged into one of those containers and shipped up north.
“The containers are beautiful. They are produced in the middle of Germany where the hardware is enabled and tested. Then we put it on a truck and send it up here. When the truck arrives on the outside we lift it on the container vehicle. Two hours after the container arrives, it’s in the container rack. And 40 hours later we enable the cooling, network, power, other systems, and it’s online,” said Mats Andersson, a spokesman for the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway, where Northern Bitcoin has its operations. Plug and play.

A Northern Bitcoin data container inside the Lefdal Mine data center, in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)If the cheap electricity wasn’t enough—around 5 cents per kilowatt hour compared to 17 cents in Germany—Norway also provides the perfect storage for these data containers, which are normally racked up in open air parks above the ground.
Also here, the resource allocation is beautiful. Instead of occupying otherwise useful and beautiful parcels of land and nature, the Northern Bitcoin containers and others are stored in the old Lefdal olivine mine.
Olivine is a mineral used for steel production and looks green. Very fitting. Hence also the name of the data center: Lefdal Mine.
“We take the green mineral out and we take the green IT in,” said Andersson.

Efficiency, Efficiency

Using the old mine as storage for the data center makes the whole process even more resource efficient.
Why? So far, we’ve only been talking about bitcoin mining using a lot of energy. But what for? Before you have actually seen the process in action—and it is similar for other computing operations—you cannot imagine how bizarre it is.
Most of the electricity is used to prevent the computers from overheating. So it’s not even the processors themselves; it’s the fans which cool the computer that use the most juice.
This is where the mine helps, because it’s rather cool 160 meters (525 feet) below sea level; certainly cooler than in the Texas desert.
But it gets even better. On top of the air blow-cooling the computer, the Lefdal data center uses a fresh water system to pump through the containers in pipes.
The fans can then circulate air over the cool pipes which transfer the heat to the water. One can feel the difference when touching the different pipes.
The fresh water closed circle loop then completes the “green” or resource efficiency cycle by transferring its heat to ice cold water from the nearby Fjord.
The water is sucked in through a pipe from the Fjord, the heat gets transferred without the water being mixed, and the water flows back to the Fjord, without any impact on the environment.
To top it all off, the mine has natural physical security far better than open air data centers and is even protected from an electromagnetic pulse blast because it’s underground.

_The Nordfjord near Måløy, Norway. The Lefdal data center takes the cold water from the fjord and uses it to cool the computer inside the mine. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)_Company Dynamics

Given this superlative set up, Northern Bitcoin wants to ramp up production as fast as possible at the Lefdal mine and other similar places in Norway, which have more mountains where data centers can be housed.
At the moment, Northern Bitcoin has 15 containers with 210 mining machines each. The 15 containers produce around 5 bitcoin per day at a total cost of around $2,500 dollars at the end of November 2018 and after the difficulty of solving the math problems went down by ~17 percent.
Most of it is for electricity; the rest is for leasing the containers, renting the mine space, buying and writing off the mining computers, personnel, overhead, etc.
Even at the current relatively depressed prices of around $4000, that’s a profit of $1500 per bitcoin or $7,500 per day.
But the goal is to ramp it up to 280 containers until 2019, producing 100 bitcoin per day. Again, the company is in the sweet spot to do this.
As opposed to the beginning of the year when one could not procure a mining computer from Bitmain even if one’s life depended on it, the current bear market has made them cheap and relatively available both new and second had from miners who had to cease operations because they can’t produce at low bitcoin prices.

Northern Bitcoin containers inside the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. (Northern Bitcoin)What about the data shipping containers? They are manufactured by a company called Rittal who is the world market leader. So it helps that the owner of Rittal also owns 30 percent of the Lefdal mine, providing preferential access to the containers.
Northern Bitcoin said it has enough capital available for the intermediate goal of ramping up to 50 containers until the end of year but may tap the capital markets again for the next step.
The company can also take advantage of the lower German corporate tax rate because revenue is only recorded when the bitcoin are sold in Germany, not when they are mined in Norway.
Of course, every small-cap stock—especially bitcoin companies—have their peculiarities and very high risks. As an example, Northern Bitcoin’s financial statements, although public, aren’t audited.
The equipment in the Lefdal mine in Norway is real and the operations are controlled by the Lefdal personnel, but one has to rely on exclusive information from the company for financials and cost figures, so buyer beware.

Norway Powerhouse?

Northern Bitcoin wants to have 280 containers, representing around 5 percent of the network’s computing power.
But the Lefdal mine alone has a capacity to power and cool 1,500 containers in a 200 megawatt facility, once it is fully built out.
“Here you have all the space, power, and cooling that you need. … Here you can grow,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.

A mine shaft in the Lefdal Mine data center in Måløy, Norway. The whole mine will have a capacity for 1500 containers once fully built out. (Valentin Schmid/The Epoch Times)The Norwegian government was behind an initiative to bring computing power to Norway and make it one of the prime destinations for data centers at the beginning of this decade.
To that effect, the local governments own part of the utility companies which operate the power plants and own part of the Lefdal Mine and other locations. But even without notable subsidies (i.e. cash payments to companies), market players were able to figure it out, for everybody’s benefit.
The utilities win because they can sell their cheap electricity close to home. The computing companies like IBM and Northern Bitcoin win because they can get cheap electricity, storage, and security. Data center operators like Lefdal win because they can charge rent for otherwise unused and unneeded space.
However, in a recent about face, the central government in Oslo has decided to remove cryptocurrency miners from the list of companies which pay a preferential tax rate on electricity consumption.
Normally, energy intensive companies, including data centers, pay a preferential tax on electricity consumed of 0.48 øre ($0.00056 ). According to a report by Norwegian media Aftenposten, this tax will rise to 16.58 øre ($0.019) in 2019 for cryptocurrency miners exclusively.
The argument by left wing politician Lars Haltbrekken who sponsored the initiative: “Norway cannot continue to provide huge tax incentives for the most dirty form of cryptocurrency output […] [bitcoin] requires a lot of energy and generates large greenhouse gas emissions globally.”
Since Norway generates its electricity using hydro, precisely the opposite is true: No greenhouse gas emissions, or any emissions for that matter would be produced, if all cryptomining was done in Norway. As opposed to China, where mining is done with coal and with emissions.
But not only in Norway is the share of renewable and emission free energy high. According to research by Coinshares, Bitcoin’s consumes about 77.6 percent of its energy in the form of renewables globally.
However self-defeating the arguments against bitcoin mining in Norway, the political initiative is moving forward. What it means for Northern Bitcoin is not clear, as they house their containers in Lefdal’s mixed data center, which also has other clients, like IBM.
“It’s not really decided yet; there are still big efforts from IT sectors and parties who are trying to change it. If the decision is taken it might apply for pure crypto sites rather than mixed data centers, like ours,” said Lefdal’s Andersson.
Even in the worst-case scenario, it would mean an increase from ~5 cents to ~6.9 cents per kilowatt hour, or 30 percent more paid on the electricity by Northern Bitcoin, which at ~$3250 would still rank it among the most competitive producers in the world.
Coinshares estimates the average production price at $6,800 per Bitcoin at $0,05 per kilowatt hour of electricity and an 18-months depreciation schedule, but concedes that a profitable miner could “[depreciate] mining gear over 24-30 months, or [pay] less for mining gear than our estimates.”
Jäger says Northern Bitcoin depreciates the equipment over three years and has obtained very favorable prices from Bitmain, making its production much more competitive than the average despite the same cost of electricity. In addition, the natural cooling in the mine also reduces electricity costs overall.

Cheap Producer Advantage

At the moment, however, the tax could be the least of any miners worry, as the bitcoin price is in free-fall.
But what happens when the price crashes further? Suffice it to say that there was bitcoin mining when the dollar price was less than 1 cent and there will be bitcoin mining at lower prices thanks to the design of the network.
Mao Shixing, the founder of mining pool F2pool estimated 600,000 miners have shut down since the November crash in price, according to a report by Coindesk.
As it should be in a competitive system, the most energy intensive and obsolete machines are shut down first.
As with every other commodity, when the price drops, some miners will leave the market, leaving space for cheaper competitors to capture a bigger share. But with bitcoin this is a bit simpler than with copper or gold for example.
When a big copper player goes bankrupt, its competitors have to ramp up production and increase cost to increase their market share. With bitcoin, if 3,000 computers get taken off the total mining pool, they won’t be able to mine the approximately 5 bitcoin any longer.
However, because the difficulty of solving the computationally intensive cryptographic tasks of bitcoin decreases automatically when there are fewer computers engaged in the task, the other players just have to leave their machines running at the same rate for the same cost and they will split the 5 bitcoin among them.
“The moment the price goes down, our production price will go down as well,” said Jäger, a process that already happened from November to December when the difficulty decreased twice in November and the beginning of December.
This naturally favors players like Northern Bitcoin, which are producing at the lower end of the cost spectrum. They will be the ones who shut down last.
And this is a good thing. The more companies like Northern Bitcoin, and countries like Norway—even with the extra tax—the more decentralized the bitcoin system.
The more computers there are in different hands mining bitcoin, the more secure the system becomes, because it will be ever more difficult for one player to reach the 50 percent threshold to crash the system. It is this decentralized philosophy which has kept the bitcoin system running for 10 years. Whether at $1 or $20,000.
submitted by rotoreuters to zerohedge [link] [comments]

Is all mining now negative return-on-investment?

I have been closely watching the mining scene for only about 3 months, so excuse me if this sort of question is asked frequently, or is too speculative.
Is all BTC mining now underwater, with a negative ROI?
That's what it looks like to me. I initially got interested years ago, when the return was small and BTC was not worth much. I didn't mine because it seemed like a miniscule return on investment. Oh I wish I had started back then, those "worthless" BTCs would be worth a lot now.
But I started getting more interested again when that Ars Technica article on the BFL Jalapeno appeared. Holy crap, a machine that prints free money. He made hundreds of bucks in a week.
So I started checking it out. With the delays in BFL's product shipping, all the mining calculators show that any new investment in mining hardware will never break even. Difficulty is increasing so fast, that the only machines making money are already in place, and soon they won't even pay for the cost of electricity.
Now just to screw this up even further, BFL did a classic "Osborne Effect" announcement of their new Monarch board. Their existing ASIC machines are obsolete. The new 28nm machine that does not exist yet, is promised to deliver 600Gh for 350 watts, and costs $4680. I ran the numbers through the mining calculator at The Genesis Block. Unfortunately their calculator seems to be down at the moment, but I recall running numbers on a Monarch, delivered even in December, would not break even unless BTC went up to 2000 per dollar!
Now even accounting for BFL's broken promises, if I could buy mining hardware like this today and turn it on now, it would make a negative ROI. I run the numbers for every possible hardware I could buy, none of them are as cheap in dollars/Gh or Gh/watt as the Monarch. And none of them break even.
I decided to track the existing performance of mining using my dinky Mac mini's GPU. It won't mine much, and GPU mining will never break even in a network full of ASICs. But it would give a rough index of how difficulty is affecting mining. Here's a rough description of my results. At this point, it looks like mining is doubling in difficulty every month. Nobody can make money unless either BTC rises in value dramatically, or the majority of miners give up and unplug their unprofitable mining hardware.
So someone tell me if this assessment is realistic or not. At the moment, it looks like any new investment in mining hardware will result in turning every dollar of investment into 50 cents worth of BTC at most. With increasing difficulty, soon even existing mining hardware will be turning every dollar of electricity into less than a dollar worth of BTC. ROI is underwater now for new hardware, and soon will be underwater for all hardware, even advanced ASICs that haven't even shipped yet. There are only two ways that mining might ever make a profit. One is if almost everyone gives up when their miners become unprofitable. The other is if BTC goes up massively in value to like $2500/USD, which will only fuel the arms race even more.
Yeah, I know there is a big incentive to spread disinformation to convince people to drop out of mining. So don't try to BS me. Let me hear your honest assessments, or please point me in a direction where I can do research to figure this out.
submitted by nmrk to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

TRUE or FALSE: It takes 1.75 *MILLION* dollars in computing power needed to mine 1 Bitcoin per day

Hi all. I saw this on Quora but for some reason cannot link to it, so have copied it below. I would have preferred to point you to it online but hopefully the text below will suffice. Is this accurate?
Babs
--------
QUESTION:
How much computing power will be needed to mine 1 bitcoin per day or even half of it?
ANSWER:
To mine one whole bitcoin per day
Or even 1/2 of one per day….
In Bitcoin mining, there are at least 7–8 exahashes per second of computing power executing and growing continuously
That is :
7,000–8,000 petahashes
7 billion - 8 billion GH/second
The s9 ant miner cost about $7,000. And gets 14 TH/s or 14,000 gh/s
If we assume bitcoin mining consumes 7 billion GH per second (it is most likely 8, 7 just makes calculates into prettier numbers)
And each antminer offers 14 thousand GH per second
Or .0002% of the mining (.000002 x 100%)
And there are 2,000 bitcoin a day:
83.33_ every hour
1.388_ every minute
.02315 every second
You would get .004 BTC a day
For 7,000$
You would need 250 S9 antminers
For only 1 btc a day
250 x 7,000 = 1.75 million dollars
Or 875,000$ for half a bitcoin a day, based on hashing
You could still get more or less than the given amounts because it all comes down to chance with hashing.
You could also probably buy equipment that is more efficient with that type of money, the S9 antminer is just the most efficient consumer available mining hardware.
I don’t really like bitcoin all that much, this ridiculous computing is the biggest reason, you could power cities across the world with this energy…. And it’s used for bitcoin instead, the least efficient of all the cryptocurrencies in terms of scalability and transaction speed….
submitted by babsamajabsma to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Question about mining..

Hey guys!
Recently, me and one of my friends got really excited about bitcoins. We have some money to spend on this, and we have chosen a device, called AntMiner S3 (around 159 dollars, with a 453 GH/s value. We calculated it on a site, and it showed, that the earning per month is around 40-45 dollars. My question is, are these values:
-Correct? -Do they mean solo or pool?
The site https://alloscomp.com/bitcoin/calculator
Thanks in advance!
submitted by Lub1k to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

TRUE or FALSE: It takes 1.75 *MILLION* dollars in computing power to mine 1 Bitcoin per day

Hi all. I saw this on Quora but for some reason cannot link to it, so have copied it below. I would have preferred to point you to it online but hopefully the text below will suffice. Is this accurate?
Babs
--------
QUESTION:
How much computing power will be needed to mine 1 bitcoin per day or even half of it?
ANSWER:
To mine one whole bitcoin per day
Or even 1/2 of one per day….
In Bitcoin mining, there are at least 7–8 exahashes per second of computing power executing and growing continuously
That is :
7,000–8,000 petahashes
7 billion - 8 billion GH/second
The s9 ant miner cost about $7,000. And gets 14 TH/s or 14,000 gh/s
If we assume bitcoin mining consumes 7 billion GH per second (it is most likely 8, 7 just makes calculates into prettier numbers)
And each antminer offers 14 thousand GH per second
Or .0002% of the mining (.000002 x 100%)
And there are 2,000 bitcoin a day:
83.33_ every hour
1.388_ every minute
.02315 every second
You would get .004 BTC a day
For 7,000$
You would need 250 S9 antminers
For only 1 btc a day
250 x 7,000 = 1.75 million dollars
Or 875,000$ for half a bitcoin a day, based on hashing
You could still get more or less than the given amounts because it all comes down to chance with hashing.
You could also probably buy equipment that is more efficient with that type of money, the S9 antminer is just the most efficient consumer available mining hardware.
I don’t really like bitcoin all that much, this ridiculous computing is the biggest reason, you could power cities across the world with this energy…. And it’s used for bitcoin instead, the least efficient of all the cryptocurrencies in terms of scalability and transaction speed….
submitted by babsamajabsma to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

The economics and maths behind the creation of Ethereums 2 chains and why it is improbable bitcoin will suffer the same fate.

Some of the most influential people in the space continuously say that bitcoin can create two sustainable chains without a hardcoded difficulty adjustment. I believe that this is economically improbable. In this post I hope to give everyone a clear understanding as to why I believe this. The method employed here could and I think should be used as a framework for analysis of any blockchain technology to deduce its consensus viability.
The only reason this analysis is required is due to such forks occurring in other coins that were still progressing through the value bootstrapping phase. Key economic variables were overlooked. The most important variables being the time until the difficulty adjustment and the max and minimum difficulty adjustment. These are the variables that I believe are critical to preventing a sustainable fork and the cause of the most notorious fork, Ethereum Classic.
It is important to note that the circumstances behind the Ethereum fork where special, bitcoin is facing an entirely different problem. Ethereums immutability was in question, Bitcoin simply needs to go through one of two protocol upgrades proposals. Ethereum also has a very different incentive model that allows it to be taken advantage of by a miniscule minority resulting in the creation of a "sustainable" minority fork (ignoring possible reorg attacks).
So let's determine what it took to create the Ethereum Classic fork.
At the time of the fork:
  1. Ethereum had a hashrate of 59TH/s
  2. You could buy 20MH/s for ~£100 ($120).
  3. Blocks have a target of being created every 13 seconds
  4. Ethereum adjusts difficulty every block with a max downward adjustment of 99/2048 if over 100 seconds between blocks.
  5. A sustainable fork was created in around 5 days.
  6. The hacker had a $150 Million bounty to claim
The target here is to come up with a dollar amount that will result in a sustainable fork within 5 days. Using the 6 points above we have all the information we need to deduce if it is economically possible for the hacker to produce a sustainable fork to claim the DAO bounty.
We can calculate the time to the next difficulty adjustment using the formula:
(Blocktime * Original Hashrate) / time to solve = Hashrate Needed 
Thus the hashrate it will take to get to the first difficulty adjustment within 5 days is simply:
(14 * 59,000,000,000,000)/ (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) = 1.775 GH/s 
Once the first difficulty adjustment has been reached the time to get to the next is trivially deduced for a given hashrate by multiplying the time by the amount the difficulty has been adjusted:
time * difficulty adjustment factor = time to next difficulty adjustment 
Thus
Difficulty adjustment 2 (5 * 24 * 60 * 60) * 99/2048 = 20,882 seconds = 5.8 hours Difficulty adjustment 3 (20,882) * 99/2048 = 1,009 seconds = 16.82 minutes Difficulty adjustment 4 (1,009) * 99/2048 = 48 seconds Difficulty adjustment 5 within 100 seconds 
The cost for hardware that is capable of 1.7GH/s at the time of the fork was ~$20,000. The conclusion here is that within 6 days and with less than 0.0000029% of the hashrate you can fork ETH for a very reasonable cost. When you also factor in that there is at least one person with $150 million to defend, this cost is insignificant and if it works could yield a 7,500X return.
At least one person wanted to make a rig this big, before the DAO.
This is not probable with bitcoin because it takes 2016 blocks or 1,209,600 seconds to get to the difficulty adjustment, compared to 13 seconds. While also limiting the maximum difficulty adjustment to 0.25 of the original difficulty compared to ~0.04.
If anyone is interested I have done a much more in depth analysis of the bitcoin blockchain. What I hope to show everyone with a further analysis is that Bitcoin will not create two chains is improbable. I calculated it for all forking hashrates using current hashrate costs, difficulty, block generation time, block reward and network activity. This results in a cost that is required to fork the chain and thus probability of this occurring. It assumes miners are profit motivated (as the white paper assumes they are). It currently has no write up, but I have done the maths. If enough of you are interested I'll put the work in to write it up and explain my thinking so that this "Bitcoin will create 2 chains" argument can be put to rest... or at least have some numbers behind it.
submitted by 2ndEntropy to btc [link] [comments]

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uk,.,bitcoin,.,ethereum,.,bitcoin,.,explorer,.,bitcoin,.,exchange rate uk,.,bitcoin,.,euro,.,bitcoin,.,exchange rate chart,.,bitcoin,.,exchange rate history,.,bitcoin,.,e wallet,.,,.,bitcoin,.,e.g. crossword,.,bitcoin,.,e.g. crossword clue,.,bitcoin,.,e commerce,.,bitcoin,.,e-currency,.,bitcoin,.,e money,.,bitcoin,.,e card,.,bitcoin,.,ebook,.,bitcoin,.,e-voucher,.,bitcoin,.,e pill,.,bitcoin,.,fork,.,bitcoin,.,forecast,.,bitcoin,.,faucet,.,bitcoin,.,forum,.,bitcoin,.,for dummies,.,bitcoin,.,farm,.,bitcoin,.,fees,.,bitcoin,.,founder,.,bitcoin,.,future,.,bitcoin,.,fund,.,f#,.,bitcoin,.,price of,.,bitcoin,.,brother john f,.,bitcoin,.,bh f,.,bitcoin,.,msil,.,bitcoin,.,miner-f,.,bitcoin,.,gbp,.,bitcoin,.,graph,.,bitcoin,.,growth,.,bitcoin,.,generator,.,bitcoin,.,gambling,.,bitcoin,.,github,.,bitcoin,.,games,.,bitcoin,.,guide,.,bitcoin,.,google finance,.,bitcoin,.,global capital,.,g,.,bitcoin,.,price,.,g,.,bitcoin,.,charts,.,g,.,bitcoin,.,value,.,g,.,bitcoin,.,mining calculator,.,bitcoin,.,guiminer,.,ghash,.,bitcoin,.,g coin,.,bitcointalk,.,g cash to,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,miner.g,.,bitcoin,.,hard fork,.,bitcoin,.,hardware wallet,.,bitcoin,.,history,.,bitcoin,.,historical price,.,bitcoin,.,hack,.,bitcoin,.,how to buy,.,bitcoin,.,halving,.,bitcoin,.,how it works,.,bitcoin,.,hashrate,.,bitcoin,.,hardware wallet uk,.,bitcoin,.,h/s,.,c&h,.,bitcoin,.,main.h,.,bitcoin,.,hash.h,.,bitcoin,.,coins.h,.,bitcoin,.,best b#$h -,.,bitcoin,.,best b#$h -,.,bitcoin,.,lyrics,.,h&r block,.,bitcoin,.,h-not-zero,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,investment,.,bitcoin,.,in gbp,.,bitcoin,.,investment trust,.,bitcoin,.,index,.,bitcoin,.,inventor,.,bitcoin,.,in usd,.,bitcoin,.,india,.,bitcoin,.,inflation,.,bitcoin,.,in dollars,.,bitcoin,.,investment uk,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,in usd,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,in inr,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,to pkr,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,to dollar,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,to naira,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,in rs,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,= satoshi,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,is equal to,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,berapa rupiah,.,i,.,bitcoin,.,in inr in 2009,.,bitcoin,.,japan,.,bitcoin,.,jobs,.,bitcoin,.,japan legal,.,bitcoin,.,jesus,.,bitcoin,.,jobs london,.,bitcoin,.,jobs uk,.,bitcoin,.,july 2017,.,bitcoin,.,jokes,.,bitcoin,.,june 2017,.,bitcoin,.,jihan,.,bitcoin,.,j,.,bitcoinj tutorial,.,bitcoinj micropayments,.,mary j,.,bitcoin,.,belle,.,mary j,.,bitcointalk,.,j maurice,.,bitcoin,.,mary j,.,bitcoin,.,j p morgan,.,bitcoin,.,,.,bitcoin,.,j vty,.,обменник,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,kurs,.,bitcoin,.,kraken,.,bitcoin,.,koers,.,bitcoin,.,knots,.,bitcoin,.,key,.,bitcoin,.,kopen,.,bitcoin,.,korea,.,bitcoin,.,knowledge,.,bitcoin,.,kaufen,.,bitcoin,.,kurz,.,bitcoin,.,k line,.,bitcoin,.,k,.,bitcoin,.,k value,.,bitcoin,.,k chart,.,john k,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,k-market,.,k-market jätkäsaari,.,bitcoin,.,k čemu,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,live price,.,bitcoin,.,latest news,.,bitcoin,.,login,.,bitcoin,.,logo,.,bitcoin,.,ledger,.,bitcoin,.,live,.,bitcoin,.,local,.,bitcoin,.,lottery,.,bitcoin,.,london,.,bitcoin,.,loan,.,bitcoin,.,l-39,.,l-39,.,bitcoin,.,jet,.,bitcoin,.,l'altra faccia della moneta,.,l'ambassade,.,bitcoin,.,l'avenir du,.,bitcoin,.,l'histoire du,.,bitcoin,.,l'inventeur du,.,bitcoin,.,l'évolution du,.,bitcoin,.,l'avenir des,.,bitcoins,.,l'origine du,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,market,.,bitcoin,.,millionaire,.,bitcoin,.,mining software,.,bitcoin,.,meaning,.,bitcoin,.,mining hardware,.,bitcoin,.,machine,.,bitcoin,.,mining pool,.,bitcoin,.,magazine,.,bitcoin,.,mining rig,.,m,.,bitcoin,.,meaning,.,m.bitcoin2048,.,bitcoin,.,m of n,.,bitcoin,.,m of n transactions,.,siriusxm,.,bitcoin,.,triple m,.,bitcoin,.,m lhuillier,.,bitcoin,.,m pesa vs,.,bitcoin,.,m.bitcoin2048.com отзывы,.,mercado,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,news uk,.,bitcoin,.,network,.,bitcoin,.,net worth,.,bitcoin,.,news reddit,.,bitcoin,.,nodes,.,bitcoin,.,network fee,.,bitcoin,.,near me,.,bitcoin,.,nedir,.,bitcoin,.,news india,.,bitcoin.n,.,bitcoin,.,n.ireland,.,n&p,.,bitcoin,.,consulting,.,shares in,.,bitcoin,.,piotr_n,.,bitcointalk,.,piotr_n,.,bitcoin,.,m of n,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoinspot.n,.,bitcoin,.,or ethereum,.,bitcoin,.,owner,.,bitcoin,.,online,.,bitcoin,.,original price,.,bitcoin,.,offline wallet,.,bitcoin,.,online wallet,.,bitcoin,.,outlook,.,bitcoin,.,official site,.,bitcoin,.,on amazon,.,o,.,bitcoin,.,e seguro,.,o,.,bitcoinu,.,bitcoin,.,o'reilly,.,bitcoin,.,to aud,.,bitcoin,.,o'reilly pdf,.,bitcoin,.,to euro,.,bitcoin,.,to btc,.,sve o,.,bitcoin,.,o'reilly,.,bitcoin,.,and the blockchain,.,bitcoin,.,price gbp,.,bitcoin,.,predictions,.,bitcoin,.,price uk,.,bitcoin,.,price prediction,.,bitcoin,.,paper wallet,.,bitcoin,.,pizza,.,,.,bitcoin,.,price live,.,p np,.,bitcoin,.,r.i.p.,.,bitcoin,.,p-free,.,bitcoin,.,win32/bitcoinminer.p,.,bitcoin,.,qt,.,bitcoin,.,qr code,.,bitcoin,.,quote,.,bitcoin,.,quantum computing,.,bitcoin,.,que es,.,bitcoin,.,quora,.,bitcoin,.,questions,.,bitcoin,.,qt update,.,bitcoin,.,qt wallet location,.,bitcoin,.,quantum,.,bitcoin,.,q,.,bitcoin,.,q es,.,q son,.,bitcoins,.,q es un,.,bitcoin,.,q son los,.,bitcoins,.,q es el,.,bitcoin,.,q comprar con,.,bitcoins,.,bitcoins que significa,.,bitcoin,.,q significa,.,bitcoin,.,rate,.,bitcoin,.,reddit,.,bitcoin,.,review,.,bitcoin,.,rival,.,bitcoin,.,rate gbp,.,bitcoin,.,rise,.,bitcoin,.,regulation,.,bitcoin,.,rich list,.,bitcoin,.,rate history,.,bitcoin,.,regulation uk,.,r,.,bitcoinmarkets,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,uk,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,canada,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,cash,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,package,.,r,.,bitcointalk,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,mining,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,abc,.,r,.,bitcoin,.,analysis,.,bitcoinxt,.,bitcoin,.,share price,.,bitcoin,.,stock,.,bitcoin,.,split,.,bitcoin,.,segwit,.,bitcoin,.,stock price,.,bitcoin,.,shares,.,bitcoin,.,symbol,.,bitcoin,.,suisse,.,bitcoin,.,scams,.,bitcoin,.,stock market,.,bitcoins value,.,bitcoin,.,s curve,.,bitcoin,.,miners,.,gh/s,.,bitcoin,.,th/s,.,bitcoin,.,th/s,.,bitcoin,.,miner,.,mh/s,.,bitcoin,.,1th/s,.,bitcoin,.,miner,.,10th/s,.,bitcoin,.,miner,.,20th/s,.,bitcoin,.,miner,.,bitcoin,.,trading,.,bitcoin,.,to dollar,.,bitcoin,.,transaction,.,bitcoin,.,to £,.,bitcoin,.,ticker,.,bitcointalk,.,bitcoin,.,transaction fee,.,bitcoin,.,t shirt,.,bitcoin,.,t shirt uk,.,bitcoin,.,t shirt india,.,bitcoin,.,t shirt store,.,alpha-t,.,bitcointalk,.,bb&t,.,bitcoin,.,t-110,.,bitcoin,.,mining system,.,bitcoin,.,miner t720,.,bitcoin,.,usd,.,bitcoin,.,uk,.,bitcoin,.,unlimited,.,bitcoin,.,unconfirmed transaction,.,bitcoin,.,usd price,.,bitcoin,.,uk price,.,bitcoin,.,uasf,.,bitcoin,.,uk tax,.,bitcoin,.,update,.,bitcoin,.,uk exchange,.,why u,.,bitcoin,.,billionaire,.,bitcoin,.,u bosni,.,bitcoin,.,miner.u,.,bitcoin,.,u crnoj gori,.,bitcoin,.,youtube,.,bitcoin,.,u dinarima,.,wii u,.,bitcoin,.,utorrent,.,bitcoin,.,u.s.,.,bitcoin,.,exchange,.,bitcoin,.,u kune,.,bitcoin,.,value,.,,.,bitcoin,.,value chart,.,bitcoin,.,value history,.,bitcoin,.,value gbp,.,bitcoin,.,vs ethereum,.,bitcoin,.,vs usd,.,bitcoin,.,volatility,.,bitcoin,.,vs litecoin,.,bitcoin,.,value 2010,.,bitcoin,.,vs gold,.,bitcoin,.,v litecoin,.,bitcoin,.,v dollar,.,bitcoin,.,v euro,.,bitcoin,.,v gold,.,bitcoin,.,v blockchain,.,bitcoin,.,v onecoin,.,bitcoin,.,hack v.2,.,bitcoin,.,worth,.,bitcoin,.,wiki,.,bitcoin,.,wallet uk,.,bitcoin,.,what is it,.,bitcoinwisdom,.,bitcoin,.,whitepaper,.,bitcoin,.,wallet online,.,bitcoin,.,wallet address,.,bitcoin,.,wallet download,.,bitcoin,.,miner.w,.,bitcoin,.,w polsce,.,bitcoiny w polsce,.,bitcoin,.,w niemczech,.,bitcoin,.,w chmurze,.,bitcoin,.,w żabce,.,bitcoin,.,w polsce legalny,.,bitcoin,.,w chinach,.,bitcoin,.,w prawie polskim,.,bitcoin,.,w górę,.,bitcoin,.,xe,.,bitcoin,.,xbt,.,bitcoin,.,xt,.,bitcoin,.,xbte,.,bitcoin,.,xapo,.,bitcoin,.,xrp,.,bitcoin,.,xt price,.,bitcoin,.,xpub,.,x,.,bitcoin,.,generator,.,bitcoin,.,yahoo finance,.,bitcoin,.,year chart,.,bitcoin,.,year,.,bitcoin,.,yield,.,bitcoin,.,ytd,.,bitcoin,.,yubikey,.,bitcoin,.,yoda,.,bitcoin,.,yahoo finance chart,.,ybitcoin,.,magazine,.,bitcoin,.,y control de cambio,.,y combinator,.,bitcoin,.,ecuador y,.,bitcoin,.,bitcoin,.,by paypal,.,bitcoin,.,y el lavado de dinero,.,bitcoin,.,y deep web,.,bitcoin,.,y lavado de dinero,.,bitcoin,.,y litecoin,.,bitcoin,.,and blockchain,.,bitcoin,.,zebra,.,bitcoin,.,zerohedge,.,bitcoin,.,zimbabwe,.,bitcoin,.,zar,.,bitcoin,.,zcash,.,bitcoin,.,zapwallettxes,.,bitcoin,.,zarabianie,.,bitcoin,.,zug,.,bitcoin,.,zero,.,bitcoin,.,zero confirmations,.,bitcoin,.,z value,.,titan z,.,bitcoin,.,mining,.,titan z,.,bitcoin,.,z cash,.,bitcoin,.,nvidia titan z,.,bitcoin,.,mining,.,nvidia titan z,.,bitcoin,.,nakup zlata z,.,bitcoini,.,sklep z,.,bitcoinami,.,trgovanje z,.,bitcoini,.,co z,.,bitcoinem,.,bitcoin,.,0 confirmations,.,bitcoin,.,0.1,.,bitcoin,.,0.1.0,.,bitcoin,.,0 active connections,.,bitcoin,.,0 transaction fee,.,bitcoin,.,0 fee,.,0.15,.,bitcoins,.,0 25,.,bitcoins,.,0.05,.,bitcoin,.,in euro,.,bitcoin,.,2.0,.,0.1,.,bitcoins,.,0.21,.,bitcoins,.,bitcoin,.,1st august,.,bitcoin,.,1 million,.,bitcoin,.,101,.,bitcoin,.,10 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,10000,.,bitcoin,.,148,.,,.,bitcoin,.,10 year prediction,.,bitcoin,.,100k,.,bitcoin,.,100 dollars,.,bitcoin,.,10 years ago,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in gbp,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in pounds,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in £,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to dollar,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in inr,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to euro,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in gdp,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in eur,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,to myr,.,1,.,bitcoin,.,in sterling,.,bitcoin,.,2010,.,bitcoin,.,2017,.,bitcoin,.,2020,.,bitcoin,.,2018,.,bitcoin,.,2009,.,bitcoin,.,2013,.,bitcoin,.,21 million,.,bitcoin,.,2012,.,bitcoin,.,2014,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,to usd,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,price,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,to inr,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,wallets,.,2,.,bitcoins to dollars,.,2,.,bitcoins free,.,2,.,bitcoins a month,.,2,.,bitcoin,.,qt,.,bitcoin,.,2 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,2 paypal,.,bitcoin,.,3000,.,bitcoin,.,31st july,.,bitcoin,.,3 confirmations,.,bitcoin,.,3.0,.,bitcoin,.,3 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,3 month chart,.,bitcoin,.,300,.,bitcoin,.,365 club,.,bitcoin,.,3000 usd,.,bitcoin,.,30 confirmations,.,3,.,bitcoins in gbp,.,3,.,bitcoins,.,3,.,bitcoins to usd,.,3,.,bitcoin,.,in euro,.,3,.,bitcoin,.,to eur,.,bitcoin,.,3 unlimited,.,bitcoin,.,3 day chart,.,bitcoin,.,3 address,.,bitcoin,.,4000,.,bitcoin,.,4chan,.,bitcoin,.,4 billion,.,bitcoin,.,401k,.,bitcoin,.,4 backpage,.,bitcoin,.,43,.,bitcoin,.,40000,.,bitcoin,.,4k,.,bitcoin,.,4 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,48,.,4,.,bitcoins,.,4,.,bitcoins to usd,.,4,.,bitcoins in gbp,.,4,.,bitcoin,.,to eur,.,bitcoins 4 backpage,.,bitcoin,.,4 igaming,.,bitcoin,.,4 u,.,bitcoin,.,4 november,.,bitcoin,.,4 cash,.,bitcoin,.,5 year chart,.,bitcoin,.,51 attack,.,bitcoin,.,500,.,bitcoin,.,5 year,.,bitcoin,.,500 000,.,bitcoin,.,5000,.,bitcoin,.,50000,.,bitcoin,.,5 year price,.,bitcoin,.,5 years ago,.,bitcoin,.,5 year forecast,.,5,.,bitcoins in pounds,.,5,.,bitcoins,.,5,.,bitcoins to usd,.,5,.,bitcoin,.,free,.,5,.,bitcoin,.,in euro,.,bitcoin,.,5 years,.,bitcoin,.,5 minutes,.,bitcoin,.,5 min,.,bitcoin,.,5 unlimited generator,.,bitcoin,.,666,.,bitcoin,.,6 months,.,bitcoin,.,6 confirmations,.,bitcoin,.,6 month chart,.,bitcoin,.,6000,.,bitcoin,.,60 minutes,.,bitcoin,.,6 confirmations time,.,bitcoin,.,6 month price,.,bitcoin,.,6 years ago,.,bitcoin,.,60 day chart,.,6,.,bitcoin,.,network confirmations,.,,.,
submitted by besterse to BestCryptoPlatform [link] [comments]

Why the high cost of protecting against a 51% attack makes proof of work unsustainable.

Let's do the math for a moment.
Right now, the network consists of 2,369,000 GH/s.
If we go by KNC miner and Bitfury's mining products, we can say that a cautious estimate would be that we require about 1 watt per hour for every GH/s. This is not yet the case, as people are still using older less efficient Bitcoin miners, but we can sustain the present mining difficulty at 1 watt per GH/s.
The average price Americans pay is 12 cents per kilowatt-hour (which is 1000 watt per hour).
Thus, we can calculate the price of the network per hour as following:
2,369,000 watt per hour / 1000 = 2369 kWh.
2369 kWh x 0.12 = 284.28 dollar per hour.
We have on average 2491 transactions per hour right now, according to Bitcoin charts.
Thus the price of a single Bitcoin transaction right now can be as low as 284.28 / 2491 = 0.1141 dollar.
Compare this to an earlier, 2011 estimate. Back then, the average price for a transaction was $4,20 dollar. So, there has been some progress in this regards.
However, in reality we are paying the miners a subsidy, in the form of the block reward, which reduces the value of our Bitcoin, and has to be included in the calculations. The current block reward is 25 bitcoin. If we assume 6 blocks are mined per hour, this means that we pay miners 150 bitcoin per hour. With one bitcoin valued at 150 dollar, this means we pay 22,500 dollar per hour in "mining subsidies" to protect against a 51% attack.
22500 + 284.28 = 22784.28 dollar per hour, paid to sustain the network. Divide this by 2491 transactions, and we pay 9.14 dollar per transaction.
This is all meant to sustain the present difficulty level, and encourage investment in Bitcoin mining.
The problem is that the block reward won't be sustained forever. Every transaction on the Bitcoin network has to pay a transaction fee, which is required due the price it costs us to protect the network against a 51% attack.
The bigger problem we have is that a 51% attack funds itself. After all, the same reward that is paid to legitimate miners is paid to an attacker. Thus, engaging in a 51% attack would only cost the attacker money when mining itself costs him money.
This is made worse that a 51% attack can pay for itself in the form of a price crash. A man who engages in a 51% attack can bet on the price of Bitcoin to collapse, for example, by selling bitcoin short.
Our insurance against 51% attacks is very expensive right now, and we're not even sure whether our current difficulty is high enough. The problem is that this problem won't be solved by an increase in use of Bitcoin, because an increase in Bitcoin use increases the financial reward to be gained from a 51% attack.
This is why Bitcoin is valued at a low price right now. We don't know whether the network is capable of paying for the 51% insurance required to keep the network secure.
The solution to this may be found in the form of responsive mining. In the scenario of responsive mining, people only start mining blocks when there is a threat of a 51% attack. It's the equivalent of only hiring bodyguards when you think you may get shot.
However, the problem is that responsive mining is still a tragedy of the commons situation. When we see indicators of an upcoming 51% attack, we all expect each other to start mining, but if there is no profit to be made in protecting the network against the 51% attack, we will have no direct incentive to insure the network.
The solution to this could be argued to be proof of stake. Under proof of stake, anyone who mines would be forced to prove that he owns a significant amount of Bitcoin. Therefore, the miner would likely lose more money by attacking Bitcoin than he gains by betting on its downfall.
Quoting from the Bitcoin Wiki:
In a competitive market equilibrium, the total volume of txn fees must be equal to opportunity cost of all resources used to verify txns. Under proof-of-work mining, opportunity cost can be calculated as the total sum spent on mining electricity, mining equipment depreciation, mining labor, and a market rate of return on mining capital. Electricity costs, returns on mining equipment, and equipment depreciation costs are likely to dominate here. If these costs are not substantial, then it will be exceptionally easy to monopolize the mining network. The fees necessary to prevent monopolization will be onerous, possibly in excess of the 3% fee currently charged for credit card purchases.
My fear is that with every block-halving the difficulty is going to decline, and the incentive to engage in a 51% attack will increase, which would permanently destroy Bitcoin's credibility and encourage people to step over to an alternative cryptocurrency.
We may require a hard fork to implement a more sophisticated protection against a 51% attack, rather than "waste a lot of energy coming up with solutions to difficult mathematical problems".
submitted by accountt1234 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

First Experiment in Mining, even lowest hopes get disappointed.

Hi guys,
I wanted to know if Mining can be a valid option to make money (like so many others). But instead of spending thousands of bucks for my first disappointment I simply bought a 35€ 2GH/s Antminer U2. After about 24 hours of mining with the btcguild pool I've received about ~1300 satoshis which calculates to not even 0.01€ using google.com for the bitcoin-euro price.
If I ask for the euro price of 0.00001323 (current earnings) *365 (days per year) * 24 (number of years) btc in eur then I get about my 35€. So in the current price and Difficulty situation I need about 24 years of 24/7 mining to cover my expenses, considering electricity and the computer that runs the mining software to be free.
Even if the price increases tenfold by surprise and I overclock my ASIC to the limit that's not going to be good enough, right?
Seeing that I want to know why do people spend hundreds of thousands of dollars mining bitcoins. I don't know, but I would assume that a 2TH/s ASIC might produce thousand times the output of my ASIC, but it will cost more than 1000 times the price of mine, or not? And with so few bitcoins per hash/s it doesn't really matter how many hash/second you own, right? Each single hash/second is just a sunken cost, no matter how valuable Bitcoin get.
It would be really great if anybody could explain why there is a single person who mines for money.
edit: what I mean is owning a 2 TH/s ASIC must earn more than 1024 times more than a 2 GH/s ASIC for it to even have a chance to make it's own cost back, right? Is there such a thing? Does a TH/s get 2000 times more bitcoins than a GH/s?
edit 2: I might need to add some perspective on my expectations. I've read a lot of articles. So after that I knew I will not make a profit. But expecting to make 80% of your investment is one thing, then experimenting and actually not making 1% of your (small) investment is really, really bad.
edit 3 - Summary of the discussion results up to now: For people who don't want to read all the comments, the result is that I probably paid way too much for my ASIC when comparing GH/s to the price of the ASIC. I paid about 17.5€ per GH/s while a normal price would be around 0.40€ per GH/s. To get that result you probably need to invest bigger than 35€ and buy a bigger ASIC, though.
submitted by erikb85 to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

I am considering investing my money into bit coin mining and have some questions about ASIC's

So live in my parents house in the southwestern US where the house runs on mounted solar panels(free power). I have considered investing in either the 50 GH/s Bitcoin Miner from BFL or the Avalon ASIC which says it mines 60 GH/s either way when I type this into a Calculator it SAYS i should pay off the 3-6 thousand dollar investment in like 20 days. This all sounds to good to be true. I want to know your opinion.
submitted by JonathanDnD to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

How to earn Bitcoin?

Overview - Table of Contents Introduction to Earning in Bitcoin Work for Bitcoin Sell for Bitcoin Affiliate Programs Gambling Bitcoin Mining Hardware Mining Cloud Mining Introduction to Earning in Bitcoin Bitcoin is the most popular digital currency in the world today. Bitcoin cloud mining is the fastest way to immediately begin earning bitcoins. Bitcoin is built using very complicated cryptographic principles, and supported by countless individuals and companies from all around the world. By early 2016, total Bitcoin market capitalization had crossed USD 7 Billion, making it almost as valuable as the GDP of a small country like Bahamas. All the other digital currencies together do not constitute even 20% of Bitcoin’s market capitalization, underlining the its dominance and importance in the world of digital currencies.
With such a huge amount of world’s capital available in the form of Bitcoins, the number and types of opportunities to earn in bitcoins are increasing by the day. In this article we will discuss such opportunities that help us earn bitcoins.
We will start with the easiest, or the one that is applicable for the maximum number of people, and then move to the tougher ones. In the end we will cover earning bitcoins by mining. Bitcoin mining is not an easy way to earn bitcoins, but we do have a number of easier ones we will discuss first. So lets start with ‘earning bitcoins by offering your services’
Work for Bitcoin Perhaps the easiest way to earn bitcoins is to work online or in real life for bitcoins. Because of the huge size of the bitcoin eco-system, a number of such opportunities and jobs are available. With Billions of dollars invested in Bitcoin by tens of thousands of people, there is a real market in Bitcoin, where you can find jobs for freelancers, software developers, writers, and others who get paid in bitcoins for their services.
Software development, writing, design, making websites or apps, audio transcription, are some of the most active types of jobs. You can easily discover the types of jobs by going over the more popular job boards for bitcoin related work. The following job boards or forums are some of the best places to look for such jobs or gigs.
Freelancing
XBTfreelancer Cryptogrind Bitlancerr Coinality Bitgigs Jobs4Bitcoins Rein Project Crypto Jobs List Market Places
OpenBazaar Purse.io Bitify /bitmarket 21 Market Video Streaming
Watchmybit Streamium.io Tasks
Bitasker BitforTip WillPayCoin File/Image Sharing
Supload.com SatoshiBox JoyStream Advertising
CoinAd A-ads Coinzilla.io Also, check BitcoinGames for ideas on earning bitcoin and blockchain game assets.
Sell for bitcoin You can also get Bitcoin by selling your old laptops, phones or other items for Bitcoins. Such types of transactions are happening more and more, and a lot of buyers are already buying anything from iPhones to even cars by paying with Bitcoins. For Americans, Craigslist.com is your best bet when you want to find such buyers. You can mention in your ad that you are willing to take payment in Bitcoin. This way if anyone wants to buy the item for you for Bitcoin, they can contact you and make an offer. The same principle applies to other online marketplaces such as gumtree for UK, kijiji for canda etc.
Affiliate Programs Affiliate programs allow a promoter of a business or product to earn money or bitcoins by refering new clients to such businesses or products. For example, amazon.com has a popular affiliate program, where you can earn commission ranging from 2% to 20% for refering clients to products listed on amazon.com. Amazon normally pays in dollars, but there are a number of other sites and businesses which pay you in bitcoin for acting as their affiliate.
Some of the more popular affiliate programs that pay out in Bitcoin are by the sites: cex.io, coinbase.com, okcoin.com and namecheap.com, among others. You can find a larger list of such affiliate programs on the bitcoin wiki page for Affiliates.
Gambling We do not recommend gambling for every player or every user; we find that gambling is only suitable for people who know how to win at it. However, if you are one of such lucky users who have some tricks up their sleeves, and can manage to win at games such as poker, then you will find that earning bitcoins is not that hard.
One of the many applications of bitcoin since the very beginning have been in betting games or gambling. Because of the relative anonymity of bitcoin, and the lower fees, it is very suitable for gambling related applications. Indeed, one such game, satoshiDICE, has been running since 2012, and has paid out a huge number of bitcoins in innumerable transactions to its winners. There are many such games, which you can find be googling.
If you want to gamble totally anonymously, you can play gambling or betting games that are available only on darknet or .onion sites. Such sites allow you to browse them anonymous by operating on the tor network, which is a secure network that allows users to browse .onion websites without exposing their own IP address.
Bitcoin Mining For each block that is added to the Bitcoin Blockchain, a number of bitcoins are rewarded to the creater of that block. This reward is currently, as of June 2016, 25 bitcoins per block, and it halves every four years. The next halving will be in July 2016. Creating or finding the new blocks, and therefore winning the reward of 25 bitcoins for each block you create, is called bitcoin mining. To do bitcoin mining successfully, you need very powerful computers, which compete with other computers to find the next block. The speed or power of computer that do bitcoin mining is calculated in hashes calculated per second.
There are two ways to do bitcoin mining: one is to own hardware or computers that do the mining, and second is to hire the hardware from a third party, usually online, and do the mining on the cloud. Let us discuss the advantages and disadvantages of both in next two sections.
Hardware Mining When you own the hardware that does the calculations and mining of bitcoins, its called hardware mining. Hardware mining is the more popular or prevalent of the two types of mining we mentioned. One of the biggest factors which comes into play when doing bitcoin mining using your own hardware is the price of electricity. If you pay top price for electricity, then bitcoin mining may not be your cup of tea. Another related factor is infrastructure needed to cool the hardware; since every cpu generates some amount of heat, you may need to cool the hardware in case they become too heated. No wonder that some of the most successful miners work from China, specially Tibet, where they can get cheap electricity, and their cooling costs are low due to high altitude which reduces the ambient temperature for them.
For a more in-depth information on how to setup your hardware mining equipment, have a look at the Antminer setup page.
Currently, based on (1) price per hash and (2) electrical efficiency the best Bitcoin miner options are:
AntMiner S7 AntMiner S7 Bitcoin Miner 4.73 Th/s 0.25 W/Gh 8.8 pounds Yes $479.95 AntMiner S7 Bitcoin Miner 0.1645
AntMiner S9 AntMiner S9 Bitcoin Miner 13.5 Th/s 0.098 W/Gh 8.1 pounds Yes $1,987.95 AntMiner S9 Bitcoin Miner 0.3603
Avalon6 Avalon6 Bitcoin Miner 3.5 Th/s 0.29 W/Gh 9.5 pounds No $499.95 Avalon6 Bitcoin Miner 0.1232 Cloud Mining There are a number of service providers that allow you to rent computational hardware from them, which can then be used to do bitcon mining. Some of these services are designed with bitcoin mining in mind, whereas others such as Amazon AWS are general purpose services that can also be used to do bitcoin mining.
Some of the cloud mining services which can be used to do bitcoin mining on the cloud are:
Hashflare Review: Hashflare offers SHA-256 mining contracts and more profitable SHA-256 coins can be mined while automatic payouts are still in BTC. Customers must purchase at least 10 GH/s.
Genesis Mining Review: Genesis Mining is the largest Bitcoin and scrypt cloud mining provider. Genesis Mining offers three Bitcoin cloud mining plans that are reasonably priced. Zcash mining contracts are also available.
Hashing 24 Review: Hashing24 has been involved with Bitcoin mining since 2012. They have facilities in Iceland and Georgia. They use modern ASIC chips from BitFury deliver the maximum performance and efficiency possible.
Minex Review: Minex is an innovative aggregator of blockchain projects presented in an economic simulation game format. Users purchase Cloudpacks which can then be used to build an index from pre-picked sets of cloud mining farms, lotteries, casinos, real-world markets and much more.
Minergate Review: Offers both pool and merged mining and cloud mining services for Bitcoin.
Hashnest Review: Hashnest is operated by Bitmain, the producer of the Antminer line of Bitcoin miners. HashNest currently has over 600 Antminer S7s for rent. You can view the most up-to-date pricing and availability on Hashnest's website. At the time of writing one Antminer S7's hash rate can be rented for $1,200.
Bitcoin Cloud Mining Review: Currently all Bitcoin Cloud Mining contracts are sold out.
NiceHash Review: NiceHash is unique in that it uses an orderbook to match mining contract buyers and sellers. Check its website for up-to-date prices.
Eobot Review: Start cloud mining Bitcoin with as little as $10. Eobot claims customers can break even in 14 months.
MineOnCloud Review: MineOnCloud currently has about 35 TH/s of mining equipment for rent in the cloud. Some miners available for rent include AntMiner S4s and S5s.
Written by Bitcoin Mining on May 4, 2016.
submitted by mibmabus to u/mibmabus [link] [comments]

ASICS? How does this work?

If you were to say, buy the 4.5 GH/S BITCOIN MINER from Butterflylabs for 150 dollars, the calculator (http://www.alloscomp.com/bitcoin/calculator) reckons you'd be making 800 dollars a week.
This seems like something can't be quite right! What's going on?
submitted by scaesic to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] TRUE or FALSE: It takes 1.75 *MILLION* dollars in computing power needed to mine 1 Bitcoin per day

The following post by babsamajabsma is being replicated because some comments within the post(but not the post itself) have been silently removed.
The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link:
np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/7lx3gi
The original post's content was as follows:
Hi all. I saw this on Quora but for some reason cannot link to it, so have copied it below. I would have preferred to point you to it online but hopefully the text below will suffice. Is this accurate?
Babs
--------
QUESTION:
How much computing power will be needed to mine 1 bitcoin per day or even half of it?
ANSWER:
To mine one whole bitcoin per day
Or even 1/2 of one per day….
In Bitcoin mining, there are at least 7–8 exahashes per second of computing power executing and growing continuously
That is :
7,000–8,000 petahashes
7 billion - 8 billion GH/second
The s9 ant miner cost about $7,000. And gets 14 TH/s or 14,000 gh/s
If we assume bitcoin mining consumes 7 billion GH per second (it is most likely 8, 7 just makes calculates into prettier numbers)
And each antminer offers 14 thousand GH per second
Or .0002% of the mining (.000002 x 100%)
And there are 2,000 bitcoin a day:
83.33_ every hour
1.388_ every minute
.02315 every second
You would get .004 BTC a day
For 7,000$
You would need 250 S9 antminers
For only 1 btc a day
250 x 7,000 = 1.75 million dollars
Or 875,000$ for half a bitcoin a day, based on hashing
You could still get more or less than the given amounts because it all comes down to chance with hashing.
You could also probably buy equipment that is more efficient with that type of money, the S9 antminer is just the most efficient consumer available mining hardware.
I don’t really like bitcoin all that much, this ridiculous computing is the biggest reason, you could power cities across the world with this energy…. And it’s used for bitcoin instead, the least efficient of all the cryptocurrencies in terms of scalability and transaction speed….
submitted by censorship_notifier to noncensored_bitcoin [link] [comments]

What is the Block Cost?

EDIT It seems my power cost estimates are way too high, I hadnt realised just how cheaply some of you guys get your power. So consider calculations below vastly flawed, but the main point remains, it would be best to express the cost per block in BTC if at all possible.
Im a huge bitcoin fan, more of the technology than the currency; but I have a question about the cost per Block:
We all know about the Block Reward; I believe it is currently 25 btc, projected to halve mid 2016. Plus there are the miners fees. However I rarely hear about the Block Cost.
Anyone running a business, trying to make something, sell something, or even gamble, will measure the Costs vs. Reward. The cost of acquiring a customer, the cost of the beer you just sold, etc. This is something that is factored into every decision you make. However, I have rarely/never heard of the Block Cost. Maybe I've been living under a rock, and in all honesty I have not been following crypto closely this past 6 months, but I have rarely seen this discussed except in terms of electricity usage, rather than dollars, or btc.
So; Here is my very basic estimate of the current Block Cost (if i may coin the term) as at 0505 GMT 16/06/2015:
Network Hash Rate: 348,149,825.75 GH/s Network Electricity Usage assuming Antminer S5 (1155 GHs, 590W at the wall): 177,842 kWh/h (maybe, very hard to calculate) Average Electricity Price Worldwide (2011): USD$0.195/kWh Average Electricity in USA (2014): $0.10/kWh Average Electricity in Wenatchee, WA: $0.02/kWh Blocks per Hour (theoretically): 6 Bitcoin Exchange Rate to USD: $237.26
Total cost per 10min Block: 29640 kW
Using World average electricity price: $5,779.8 24.36 btc
Using USA electricity Prices: $2,964 12.4926 btc
Using Wenatchee, WA rates: $$592 2.49 btc
Block Reward: Current Block Reward: 25btc Miners Fee per Block (Previous 24hrs) / 144): 0.103btc Total: 25.103btc
TL;DR: Block Reward: 25.103btc Block Cost: 24.36 btc at world average OR 12.4926 btc at USA average OR 2.49 btc in Wenatchee, WA
Now, we've all known for a while that mining isnt a get rich quick scheme, and I know that the commnty is working on ways to address this from various angles. But I think the Block Cost should be regularly expressed and discussed in btc terms, so we all know what we're talking about. I feel hedging it in Wattage, or even Dollar values, is a way of distancing and diffusing the real cost.
Im not trying to start an argument or anything, Im just curious what people think about this.
PS: Most of my stats came from here, or they are otherwise linked. My apologies if they are incorrect.
submitted by DigitalHeadSet to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Questions from someone who is new to Bitcoin

Hello, I am very interested in trying bitcoin or litecoin to make a few extra dollars here or there. I've done some research, and I have a few questions.
Right now, I'm looking at the Butterfly Labs Jalapeno. https://products.butterflylabs.com/homepage/5-gh-s-bitcoin-miner.html. It costs $275, and it processes 5GH/S. I ran that through the Bitcoin Calculator (https://bitclockers.com/calc) and it estimated that it would return $15,000 a year at bitcoin's current price of 148.00. (Click this link to see my settings: http://bitclockers.com/calc/mining_difficulty/7673000/difficulty_change/2/btc_per_block/25/value_per_btc/148.8/mhash_rate/5000/cost_per_kwh/0.12/watts_consumption/750/total_days/90/hardware_cost/250)
I'm pretty sure I'm missing something here. I figure there's no way I should expect that kind of return. What am I missing? How much should I expect to make? What advice would you offer to a noob like me? Right now, I'm mostly in the research phase, I don't want to dive in until I'm sure it's the right decision.
submitted by johndavismit to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

VIRTACOIN MARKET CAPITALISATION CROSSES THE $ 400, 000 MARK.

VIRTACOIN MARKET CAPITALISATION CROSSES THE $400,000 MARK. By Divine Sewornu Dzokoto.
In the past few weeks, the price of virtacoin has shot to a new fresh height of $0.000036. This has sent its market capitalization to over $400, 000.
The market capitalisation of a cryptocurrency is calculated by multiplying the price of that cryptocurrency by its total number in circulation. At the time of writing, there were 11, 727, 534, 574 virtacoins available on the world market. In all, there will be 21billion virtacoins in circulation, not more not less.
One virtacoin, at the time of writing this piece was $0. 00003600. This has increased virtacoin market capitalisation to $407, 815.
In this write up, I would like to use the example of a young woman who bought 1000000vtas in June last year to illustrate how the value of VirtaCoin has appreciated. Last year in June Rachel bought 1million virtacoins for GHc 25.00. By current value one virtacoin is $0.000036. If you multiply $0.00003600 by 1000000vtas that gives a dollar value of $36. Now 36 dollars multiplied by GHc 4 totals GHc 144.00. (Even in some circles, digital currency is pegged at GH 5.00 to the dollar). This is almost 500% increase in value even when value is nowhere close to one American cent. Bitcoin, the mother coin of virtacoin is now $456 so there is a big room for virtacoin to increase in value from its current value of $0.00003600, it is only a matter of time.
If you recall that when virtacoin was launched in July 2014 the value was a paltry $0.00000002 then value started increasing. One can therefore see that the figure (2) at the extreme end has been moving towards the decimal point and is now only three steps to reach the one American cent mark.
It is still a good time to buy virtacoin if you don't have any. It is a good time to create, at least, an online wallet from www.zapit.nu/dj and stock that wallet with as many virtacoins as you can possibly get.
submitted by dzokot to VirtaCoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Mining Primer

I have been helping a friend develop business strategies at a Bitcoin start-up over the last few months. In the course of this work, the topic of Bitcoin mining appears often to be fraught with misinformation and uncertainty, especially for individual miners who unfortunately may find it difficult to return an adequate profit in many cases. This informal guide covers some important issues prospective miners should consider to avoid headaches and financial loss. The information is derived from experience deploying a 400 TH/s system scheduled to come online in around December. Opinions are my own; I’m happy to entertain constructive feedback.
This year, the Bitcoin network will award miners nearly USD 500 million, at the current price of USD 375 per bitcoin, to participate in a process known as mining. Unsurprisingly, this has attracted significant interest not only from Bitcoin advocates, but from speculators and investors as well. Regardless of one’s motivations, the business of Bitcoin mining must ultimately be profitable, or at least operationally viable, if there is to be any chance of success.
HOME MINING
Acquiring and personally managing ASIC miners is probably the most fulfilling way to mine bitcoins. It provides the greatest level of transparency, but requires a certain level of technical proficiency to set up and run.
Advantages:
1) No hosting fees payable
2) Full control of operating parameters
3) Direct payment from mining pool
Disadvantages:
1) Purchasing the latest mining hardware is inherently risky because the ongoing development of energy-efficient ASIC chips requires expertise, time and millions of dollars. R&D is usually funded by customer prepayments with no guarantee of timeliness or success. It is not uncommon for miners to incur financial loss and opportunity costs when a supplier fails to deliver
2) The retail price of hardware is typically marked up anywhere from 25% to 500%, or more, depending on market conditions. This creates a barrier to profitability, making it harder for miners to recoup hardware costs if they are unable to negotiate for volume discounts
3) Shipping fees and import tariffs can cost hundreds of dollars per unit, especially if importing equipment from overseas. This adds to the cost of hardware and must be taken into account when calculating the return on investment
4) Shipping time varies greatly. Each day spent in transit incurs an opportunity cost
5) Miners need to set aside space, usually in the home, to locate mining equipment
6) Many mining units may generate excessive noise, and heat that requires around the clock ventilation to maintain an optimal operating temperature range
7) The average mining unit draws up to three amps of current. A system containing twenty units could easily exceed the power limit in a typical home
8) Electricity is by far the largest expense in any mining operation, making up around 90 percent of operating costs. If the price of residential power is materially higher than the rate paid by commercial operators, it makes home mining uncompetitive
CLOUD MINING
Buying into a cloud mining service is often marketed as a convenient and hassle-free way to get in on Bitcoin mining. As the mining assets are managed by an intermediary, getting a breakdown of operating costs prior to purchase often proves difficult. This makes it challenging for potential customers to make a fully informed buying decision. The unspoken truth is that some cloud miners incorporate obsolete equipment—cheap miners from previous generations or liquidated, unprofitable hardware—into their cloud to sell to unsuspecting customers. Older mining units can consume 80% more power than the current generation miners, leaving very little profit for the customer. In addition to the acquisition price, those in the market for cloud mining should consider the power consumption of the cloud on offer, including changes over time as new mining units are added to increase total capacity.
Advantages:
1) Start earning immediately. No waiting weeks or months for equipment delivery, installation and set up
2) Convenient and fully managed mining service means customer needs not be technically inclined or involved in day-to-day operations
3) Professional hosting service ensures optimal performance and low operating costs. Commercial hosts may be able to purchase electricity for a materially lower cost than residential customers
4) Acquisition price is often reasonable. Sometimes, possibly, too good to be true
5) Some platforms allow miners to sell their assets to other traders
Disadvantages:
1) Not all hashing power is comparable. For the same acquisition cost, more energy-efficient miners are better because they use less power and return higher profits. When buying hashing power from a cloud, the buyer should ensure he is not getting obsolete hardware. Often this is not possible to verify without a basic understanding of the costs involved, however subpar earnings is a good indication that further investigation is required
2) Hosting and cloud management fees are typically payable. Sometimes there is little transparency in pricing, resulting in unexpected cost to the customer
3) Miner has little input into how the cloud is managed
COSTS BREAKDOWN
The amount of money earned from Bitcoin mining over a short period of time, say one week, is fairly easy to calculate. Given mining is a zero-sum game where new entrants dilute existing participants and the mining reward is roughly shared on the basis of each miner’s contribution to the overall hash rate, we can derive profit by estimating the income and costs.
Mining Income:
Weekly mining bitcoins created = 25,200 = 25 bitcoins x 6 times per hour x 24 hours x 7 days
Assuming hash rate is at 300,000 TH/s, bitcoins earned weekly per one terahash of processing power = 0.084 bitcoins = (1 terahash/ 300,000 terahash) x 25,200 bitcoins
Table 1: Weekly earnings per one terahash of computing power
Hash rate (TH/s)....Bitcoins earned 270,000.... 0.0933 280,000.... 0.0900 290,000.... 0.0869 300,000.... 0.0840 310,000.... 0.0813 320,000.... 0.0788 330,000.... 0.0764 340,000.... 0.0741 350,000.... 0.0720 360,000.... 0.0700 370,000.... 0.0681 380,000.... 0.0663 390,000.... 0.0646 400,000.... 0.0630 
As new miners enter the market, an increase in hash rate dilutes the mining reward. This is the source of much uncertainty in mining because it is difficult to accurately forecast the rate of increase. Dilution reduces a miner’s income while the amount of work is the same.
Mining Costs:
Electricity typically comprises around 90 percent of total operating costs. The two determinants of electricity cost are price and the amount of electricity consumed.
If we take a hypothetical 700 GH/s system that is rated at 490 watts, we can normalise it:
0.7 kW per one terahash = (1 terahash / 0.7 terahash) x 0.49 kW
Electricity used per week is:
117.6 kWh = 0.7 kW x 24 hours x 7 days
If we know the cost of electricity, the dollar value of electricity consumed in one week can be estimated. For reference, power prices in Australia are between USD 14 cents (commercial rate) and 19 cents (residential rate). China averages around 8 cents, while other places can be cheaper. For example, in Georgia, USA the cost of commercial electricity is around 6.5 cents per kWh.
Table 2: Weekly electricity cost of running a one terahash system
 Cost at different power ratings (USD) Electricity price (USD/kWh).....1.1 kW...0.85 kW....0.7 kW 0.05.... 9.24.... 7.14.... 5.88 0.06.... 11.09.... 8.57.... 7.06 0.07.... 12.94.... 10.00.... 8.23 0.08.... 14.78.... 11.42.... 9.41 0.09.... 16.63.... 12.85.... 10.58 0.10.... 18.48.... 14.28.... 11.76 0.11.... 20.33.... 15.71.... 12.94 0.12.... 22.18.... 17.14.... 14.11 0.13.... 24.02.... 18.56.... 15.29 0.14.... 25.87.... 19.99.... 16.46 0.15.... 27.72.... 21.42.... 17.64 
Other costs to consider include mining pool fee (typically 1 percent of earnings), hosting fee (depends on host) and other expenses such as air conditioning if hosting at home, maintenance, etc.
Profit:
Using the assumptions that hash rate is at 300,000 TH/s and bitcoin price is USD 375, we can work out the profit. Moreover, knowing the basic cost of Bitcoin mining can help prospective miners avoid offers that are too good to be true. To simplify, we ignore other running costs:
Profit = (bitcoin price x bitcoins earned) - electricity expense
Table 3: Estimated profit from running a one terahash system for one week
 Weekly profit in USD (300,000 TH/s hash rate) Electricity price (USD/kWh).....1.1 kW...0.85 kW....0.7 kW 0.05.... 22.26.... 24.36.... 25.62 0.06.... 20.41.... 22.93.... 24.44 0.07.... 18.56.... 21.50.... 23.27 0.08.... 16.72.... 20.08.... 22.09 0.09.... 14.87.... 18.65.... 20.92 0.10.... 13.02.... 17.22.... 19.74 0.11.... 11.17.... 15.79.... 18.56 0.12.... 9.32.... 14.36.... 17.39 0.13.... 7.48.... 12.94.... 16.21 0.14.... 5.63.... 11.51.... 15.04 0.15.... 3.78.... 10.08.... 13.86 
These figures serve as a good benchmark for comparing your personal performance. Where the electricity price is known, the difference between the calculated and actual profits can be attributed to two things:
1) Energy efficiency of mining units can cause significant deviation, especially when the cost of electricity is high. This is usually the case if obsolete equipment is being used
2) Hosting fee, mining pool fee and other costs also contribute to the difference
Return on Investment:
The rate of return is a measure of how much miners make for a given investment size.
Implied annualised return = (52 weeks x profit per week) / (hardware cost + shipping fees + tariffs + installation and setup costs)
The current price of ASIC miners runs at around USD 500 per terahash, excluding international delivery and insurance that can cost between five to 20 dollars per kg ($50 to $200 per unit). As a general rule, higher operating profit and lower capital costs are preferred. Investors endeavour to break even quickly on the initial hardware investment and make a profit on top of that.
The problem with this model is that it implies the hash rate remains unchanged for the entire year. In reality, the hash rate is likely to increase depending on a variety of factors. Therefore, the annual profit forecast is sensitive to changes in the hash rate as well as bitcoin price. This is a complex and interesting topic that deserves its own post. Please, keep in mind that actual mining results will very likely be less than what is indicated by this simple calculation. Under some scenarios, even informed miners can experience financial loss.
OPERATING RISKS
1) Liquidity risk: Bitcoin trading is rather shallow. As such, miners may experience high trading frictions when selling bitcoins to obtain cash. A bid-ask spread of up to 10% is not uncommon in some cases. Furthermore, most mining businesses rely on the liquidation of mined bitcoins to cover operating expenses such as electricity and hosting. The combination of these two factors may result in unexpected trading costs to the miner if there is insufficient demand from bitcoin buyers.
2) Price risk: Bitcoin is highly speculative and this is reflected in its price volatility. There is no guarantee that it won’t be worthless by next year. Therefore, the miner should keep in mind that the market price is just as important as the amount of bitcoins he holds. Bitcoin price is influenced by multiple factors outside of the scope of this discussion.
3) Competition risk: Bitcoin mining is a zero-sum game. While the size of the reward is fixed, new entrants are permitted to enter at anytime reducing all miners’ share of the reward. When bitcoin price is high, more new competitors are attracted to mining, further eroding all participants’ income.
4) As a function of the Bitcoin protocol, the mining reward will be halved between May and June of 2016. When this happens, all miners will experience an immediate decline of 50 percent in income with many operators becoming unviable. This effectively gives new entrants less than 1.5 years to break even and turn a profit. The short window of opportunity is troublesome because it makes mining significantly less profitable as the deadline draws near.
submitted by Robbie2333 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

New Free Bitcoin Cloud Mining Site - Earn $20 Dollar Daily ... DOLLAR COST AVERAGING - Best Bitcoin Investment Strategy ... How to Make Dollar after Dollar with Bitcoins  Trading BTC USD, BTC EUR 2014 How to Calculate Bitcoin Transaction Size Bitcoin To Us Dollar - YouTube

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